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Psychology 100A Ch8

Chapter 8 of the Psychology 9th Edition textbook

memory learning that has persisted over time, information that has ben stored and can be retrieved
information-processing models encoding: the processing of info into the memory system (extracting meaning) storage: the retention of encoded info over time retrieval: process of getting info out of memory storage
Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin memory stages sensory memory: immediate, very brief recording of sensory info in memory system short-term: memory that holds a few items briefly (7 digits of a phone #) long term: relatively permanent storehouse of memory system (knowledge, skills, experience)
modified version of 3 stage processing model of memory some info skips Atkinson & Shiffrin's first 2 stages - is processed directly & automatically into long-term memory without conscious awareness working memory: new understanding of short term memory - focussed on conscious, active processing
automatic processing unconscious encoding of incidental info (space, time, frequency), and of well learned info (word meanings)
effortful processing produces durable and accessible memories encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
rehearsal part of effortful processing conscious repetition of info, either to maintain it in consciousness or encode it in storage
Herman Ebbing effortful processing memory of syllables list of nonsensical syllables of consonants and vowels. randomly selected sample then practiced and tested himself, rapidly read aloud 8 times over. more frequently he repeated list on day 1, fewer he has to relearn on day 2.
spacing effect tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than massed study or practice
serial position effect tendency to recall first and last items in a list
visual encoding encoding on info of picture images imagery and mnemonics
imagery mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing; especially when combined with semantic modelling
nmemonics memory aids; especially those techniques that use visual imagery and organizational devices
acoustic encoding encoding of sounds; especially sounds of words
semantic encoding encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words - produces better recognition
chunking organizing items into familiar manageable units; often occurs automatically
iconic memory a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photograph or picture-image lasting no longer than a few tenths of a second
Sperling's experiment with iconic memory showed 3 rows of 3 letters, for 1/20th of a second. After, people would recall only about half. Then, he sounded a high, medium or low tone immediately after flashing the letters. Cue directed people to recall top, middle of bottom rows, respectively.
ephoic memory a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
working/short-term memory short-term memory is limited in duration and capacity, typically storing ~7 bits of info (magical number 7, plus or minus 2 - 7 wonders of the world, 7 sins, 7 seas, 7 primary colours...)
long-term potentiation an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
evidence of long-term potentiation 1) drugs that block LTP infer with learning (Lynch & Staubli, 1991) 2) mutant mince without enzyme for LTP can't learn way out of maze (Silva et al.,1992) 3)injecting rats with chemical that blocks preservation of LTP erases recent learning (Pastalokova
memory-enhancing drugs drugs that boost production of CREB protein - can switch genes on and off (genes code for production of protein). Repeated firing produces synapse-strengthening proteins, enabling LTP. Drugs that boost glutamate - neurotransmitter that enhances LTP
flashbulb memory a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event - may also come to be incorrect: although they are networthy for their vividness and the confidence in which we recall them with, misinformation can seep into them (Talarico & Rubin, 2007)
amnesia disease which causes a loss of memory - unable to form new memories
implicit (non-declarative) memory type of long term memory retention without conscious recollection -can learn to do something -classical conditioning, skills & motor cognition -processed in other brain areas (cerebellum)
explicite (declarative) memory type of long term memory memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare -conscious recall -may not know and declare that they know -general knowledge & personally experienced events -processed in hippocampus
hippocampus a neural centre that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage
cerebellum brain region extending out from rear of brainstem, play key role in forming and storing the implicit memories created by classical conditioning -implicit memory formation needs cerebellum
recall a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve info learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
recognition a measure of memory in which the person needs only to identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test
relearning a measure of memory that assessed the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
retrieval cues anchor points you can use to access target info when you want to retrieve it later - best retrieval cues come from associations we form at the times we encode memories
priming the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory eg. scuba divers listen to list of word underwater or on beach. Divers recalled more words when retested in the same place they were at first
déjà vu eerie sense of 'i've experienced this before' cues from current situation may trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
mood- congruent memory the tendency to recall experienced that are consistent with one's current mood (good or bad)
proactive interference deceptive effect of something learned earlier disrupting your recall of something you experience later
retroactive interference disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of something you learned ealier
encoding failure occurs in time between cognition of things being in working/short-term memory to being store in long-term memory
3 sins of forgetting absent - mindedness-inattention to details transcience - storage decay over time blocking - inaccessibility of stored info
3 sins of distortion misattribution - confusing source of information suggestibility - lingering effects of misinformation bias - belief-coloured recollections
sin of intrusion persistence - replay of unwanted memories
repression in psychoanalytical theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories
why do our memories fail? sensory memory - senses momentarily register amazing detail (lots of information bits) working/short-term memory - a few items are noticed and encoded in long-term (less info) long-term storage - some info altered or lost (less info) retrieval - depend
misinformation incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
source amnesia attribution to the wrong source of an event we have experienced, heard about, read about or imagined (also called source misattributing) - paired with misinformation, it is the heart of false memories
Created by: h.kelly95