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Procedures Test 3

tubes, infection, oxygen

what is the term that describes a decrease in oxygen available to tissues? hypoxia
When is oxygen therapy needed? to correct hypoxia and hypoxemia, to minimize the cardiopulmonary workload
What organs are most sensitive to hypoxia? brain, heart, lungs, and liver
T/F: Oxygen is a drug. True
What are the different dosages oxygen is ordered? *liters per minute (2LPM) *percentage of concentration (24%) *fractional concentration (0.24)
What are the different forms oxygen comes in? pressurized gas & liquid oxygen
How is oxygen delivery measured? liters per minute
What does hypoxemia mean? a condition of decreased oxygen concentration in the blood
T/F: when xraying a patient and they are on oxygen, it is acceptable to remove/ disconnect their oxygen line just for the time when taking images and then reconnecting afterwards. False; under no circumstances should an oxygen device be completely removed from the patient for the purpose of taking a radiograph without consent.
What are the 2 different types of oxygen delivery systems? low and high flow
Which delivery system is known as variable oxygen? low flow
What is the most common device to deliver low concentration of oxygen? nasal cannula
What is the kind of delivery system that meets or exceeds the inspiratory needs of the patient? high flow
When a patient is given oxygen thru a nasal cannula what can be done if higher flow rates are needed? humidity can be added when flow rates are higher than 4 LPM. Higher flows can dry out the nasal mucosa and cause patient discomfort.
If a patient's oxygen on the wall outlet reads 5 what does that mean? that patient receives 5 liters of oxygen per minute.
What does the pressure manometer indicate? pressure or volume of oxygen inside the cylinder or canister
What does the flowmeter control? operates the rate of oxygen flow in liters per minute to the patient.
If a patient is going to get an MRI and need/require oxygen what kind of tanks must the patient be connected to? tanks/cylinders must be made out of aluminum
Name the low flow oxygen delivery devices. nasal cannula, simple oxygen mask, nonrebreathing mask
Which low-flow oxygen delivery device gives the most oxygen amount when used? norebreathing mask can deliver 60-80% oxygen depending on how tight the mask fits on the face
What is high-flow oxygen also known as? fixed or precise
What high-flow delivery device is also known as a venturi mask? air-entrainment mask
When is a mechanical ventilator used? when the cardiopulmonary system of a patient is unable to supply adequate oxygen to the tissue.
What does it mean when a patient intubated? inserting an endotracheal tube (ET) into either the mouth or nose and advanced beyond the larynx into the trachea.
Where should an ET tube be positioned? the distal tip should be positioned 1-2" superior to the tracheal bifurcation
How does an individual know if an ET tube is in the right location? CXR
Why is it common for an ET tube to be inserted into the right main bronchus? the right bronchus has less of an angle than the left when branching off the trachea.
What is a tracheostomy? surgical procedure under sterile technique; creates an opening to the trachea that provides access for a breathing tube. Instead of having an ET tube for long term ventilator patients.
Which device provides an accurate concentration of oxygen by forcing oxygen through a narrow valve at high velocity? air-entrainment mask
When using an air-entrainment mask what does the high velocity flow do? draws in (entrains) and mixes with room air before entering the mask
T/F: Tracheostomy is performed under sterile technique true
Taking a CXR when a patient has chest tubes is determining what? *proper placement *possible removal *confirm lung expansion after removal
If a patient has a chest tube and the insertion site is downward what is being removed? fluid
When looking at a CXR, if there is blunting of the costophrenic angles what does this mean? pleural fluid is present
When looking for penumothoraces, what is the patient's respiration? expiration
Where should the chest tube drainage system be in a patients room? lower than the patients chest; normally on the floor.
What kind of lines are catheters that are placed into large veins? central venous (CV) lines
What are the purposes for CV (central venous) lines? *administer drugs *deliver parenteral nutrition *manage fluid volume *provide conduit for blood analysis & transfusions *monitor cardiac pressures
What will the physician order after a chest tube is removed? CXR
What does PICC stand for? Peripherally inserted central catheters
What kind of lines are inserted into the basilic or cephalic veins? PICC
Where should the tip of all CV lines be positioned? into the superior vena cava and 2-3cm superior to the right atrial junction
Where is the most common insertion site for CV lines? subclavian vein
What might patients have to require them to have chest tubes? pneumothorax, hemothorax, pleural effusion, empyema, post cardiac surgery
T/F: The tip of all central venous lines should be positioned in a central vein. False; not PA (pulmonary arterial line)
What is the function of PA lines? monitor pulmonary arterial pressures in order to determine left ventricular pressure
T/F: PA lines are the only central catheters that advance beyond the superior vena cava. True
What are nasogastric tubes (NG)? plastic or rubber tubes inserted through the nose into the stomach
What are the functions of NG tubes? *deliver medication *gastric decompression (removal of gas or fluid) *short-term enteral feeding
What are nasoenteric tubes? placed through mouth into duodenum or jejunum
What is another name for nasoenteric tubes? dobhoff tubes
What are PEG tubes? percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube; a tube inserted into the stomach through the abdominal wall when oral intake is inadequate.
What are the 2 main types of urinary catheters? *foley *straight
Where should the urine collection bag be kept? below the level of bladder to prevent infection and facilitated drainage
What is the most common cause of nosocomial infection? urinary catheters
what are nosocomial infections? healthcare acquired infections
What is an ostomy? creation of stoma for elimination of bowel contents is created when a section of the intestine has been removed
what is it called when the opening is from the ileum? ileostomy
What is the main difference between the straight catheter and the foley catheter? the foley catheter has a retention balloon on the end of it to hold the catheter in place; filled with sterile water.
What is establishment and growth of a microorganism on or in a host, resulting in injury to the host? infection
what is the disturbance in the state of health wherein the body cannot carry out all its normal functions? disease
What are examples of infectious agents? bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa
Microorganisms that live on or in the body but do not usually cause disease are called what? normal flora
Is bacteria eukaryotic or prokaryotic? prokaryotic (lack nucleus)
What are the three general morphologies of bacteria? *cocci(spheres) *spirals *bacilli (rods)
T/F: bacteria can adapt and become resistant. true
What is streptococcal pharyngitis? strep throat
What is Klebsiella pneumoniae? bacterial pneumonia
What is clostridium botulinum? food poisoning
What is staphylococcus aureus? staph infection
T/F: Bacteria cannot live outside a living cell. false; they can live outside a living cell.
the common cold and chicken pox are examples of what? viruses
What is Rhinovirus? common cold
What is infectious mononucleosis? Epstein-Barr virus
What is varicella-zoster? chicken pox
What are the two forms of fungi? mold & yeast
What is larger bacteria or fungi? fungi
Created by: mokapis