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Psyc 209- Test #3 UL

Learning a relatively permanent change resulting from experience and reflected in changed behavior
associative and cognitive learning two types of learning
associative learning all about associations between stimuli; basically all living beings that have brains can learn through associative learning
cognitive learning higher order process learning; knowing, understanding, participating, etc.
1) responses: observable behavior(cause and effect); 2) Antecedents: things that come before, things that recede; 3) Consequences: things that come after. Associative learning is based on 3 things
conditioning Type of associative learning
classical and operant conditioning two types of conditioning
conditioning systematic procedure through which associations and responses to specific stimuli are internalized (learned)
classical conditioning some kind of stimulus that causes an innate reflex that stimulus associated with a neutral stimulus, we pair the two stimulus' together over time and that stimulus gets the power to elicit the same response
classical conditioning its focus is on what happens before the response
Ivan Pavlov Russian psychologist and physician who noticed dog salivated in absence of food
UCS: Unconditioned Stimulus the stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response-- food
UCR: Unconditioned Response response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning--salivation
CS: Conditioned Stimulus previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit the conditioned response-- bell
CR: Conditioned Response response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus that has become associated with the unconditioned stimulus
Aquisition the period in the conditioned where you are pairing the unconditioned stimulus with the neutral stimulus
higher order conditioning adding another piece to the learning process, adding another neutral stimulus to teach a conditioned stimulus, the conditioned stimulus now becomes the unconditioned stimulus
John B. Watson American psychologist who studied sensory input and bird behavior; responsible for experiment with Little Albert
vicarious classical conditioning we observe others traumatic experiences with things and we begin to develop a fear of that same thing
Key variable of classical conditioning The Strength of the US must be strong enough to elicit the UR
Key variable of classical conditioning timing of the neutral + US pairing must be close enough to build the association, 1/2 second optimum time to show relation
Key variable of classical conditioning frequency of the neutral + US pairing, one time is not enough, one must logically predict the other ( one exception: chemotherapy)
Memory Information processing system that works constructively to encode, store, and retrieve information
cognitive system of memory processes, encodes and stores information for retrieval
Systematic changes of memory are involved in actually remembering stuff
information in which attention is focused, information in which we are interested, information that arouses us emotionally, info that fits with our previous experiences and info that we rehearse memory works well with:
encoding, storage, access & retrieval Memory's three basic tasks:
Encoding process of organizing sensory info so the nervous system can use it. Levels of processing: DEEP ( deep encoding), better memory, pay more attention, pneumonic device.
Encoding through the process of, we are Taking light waves and turning them into information that the brain can understand
Storage involves retention of encoded material over time
Storage In order for information to get stored, it has to pass from sensory membrane through working membrane to long term membrane or you wont remember it
Memory storage: sensory memory provides a brief storage of sensory material;Holding onto an exact copy of what you just saw or what you just heard, only holds onto information for a tiny amount of time
Storage: short term memory Preserves recently perceived events or experiences for less than a minute without rehearsal;Once you start actively working with information it goes into special part of your brain called working memory
selective attention piece of memory system to decide what is important enough to move into your STM
working memory information is stored for about 20-30 seconds, rehearsal leads to longer duration, the more you rehearse it the longer you can keep it
working memory capacity of the "magic number" --> 7~ George Miller; can remember 5-9 items (7 +/- 2)
chunking in working memory organizing pieces of information together into a smaller number of meaningful units
maintenance and elaborative rehearsal two types of rehearsal in working memory
maintenance rehearsal process in which information is repeated or reviewed to keep it from fading while in working memory
elaborative rehearsal process in which information is actively reviewed and related to information already in the long term memory
Long term memory stores material organized according to meaning
constructing memories in Long term memory loftus and Palmer's eye-witness study: car accident with false memories and pseudo-memories
constructive processing reorganizing or updating memories by filling in gaps using logic, guessing, or new information
Network Model model of memory that is based on organized systems of connections/linked information
Redintergration process by which memories are reconstructed or expanded by starting with one memory and then following chains or association to other, related memories
Declarative and Procedural memory two types of memory in Long term memory
semantic and episodic memory two types of declarative memories
semantic memory includes memory for language, facts, general knowledge
episodic memory includes memory for events, persona experiences
procedural memory includes memory for motor skills, operant and classical conditioning
Access and Retrieval Involves the location and recovery of information from memory; actually using the information
Whether memories are implicit or explicit, successful retrieval depends on how they were encoded and how they are cued. How do we retrieve memory?
Recall to supple or reproduce memorized information with a minimum of external cues; kind of like fill in the blank testing, reproducing information and putting it in the blank
serial position effect position of each item in the list on your ability to recall each item
primary and recency effect two parts of serial position effect
primary effect ability to generally remember the stuff that came first
recency effect ability to generally remember the stuff that came most recent or last
recognition ability to correctly identify previously learned material, usually superior to recall; we are better at reproducing by seeing, way better than recall
relearning learning again; learning faster in relearning is called saving score
emotion flashbulb memory; because of some type of tragedy, we remember information, like 9/11
the amygdala is lighting up during flashbulb memory. The limbic system firing can cause flashbacks
state dependent learning return to the same psychological state you were in when you learned the information such as chewing gum while studying/chewing gum while taking a test
explicit memories based on past experiences and consciously brought to mind
implicit memories lie outside of our awareness yet still influence your behavior
priming facilitating the retrieval of an implicit memory by using cues to activate hidden memories
Forgetting most forgetting happens right after memorization
Forgetting Ebbinghaus: wanted to test memory, tested his own memory by memorizing random syllables (no meaning attached to them) after he memorized them, he tested himself routinely, 30 minutes later up to a month later. This was called curve of forgetting.
Decay loss of memory due to time and disuse; use it, apply it, making connections, rehearse it.
Interference new memories make it harder to get to old memories or old memories make it harder to get to new memories
retroactive and proactive two types of interference
retroactive when new memories interfere with old memories
proactive when old memories interfere with new memories
cue-dependent forgetting insufficient retrieval cues to "rekindle" information; deja vu.
retrograde amnesia forgetting the stuff that occurred before the injury or trauma
anterograde amnesia forgetting events that follow an injury or trauma
stimulus generalization the tendency to respond to stimuli similar to, but not identical to a conditioned stimulus
stimulus discrimination the learned ability to respond differently to similar stimuli
extinction the weakening of a conditioned response through the removal of reinforcement
spontaneous recovery the reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction
law of effect the probability of a response is altered by the effect it has; more likely to keep tell a joke if people laugh.
positive reinforcement occurs when a response is followed by a reward or other positive event
negative reinforcement occurs when a response is followed by an end to discomfort or by the removal of an unpleasant event
punishment any event that follows a response and decreases the likelihood of occurring again.
primary reinforcer nonlearned reinforcers usually those that satisfy physiological needs
secondary reinforcer a learned reinforcer; often one that gains reinforcing properties by association with a primary reinforcer
token reinforcer a tangible secondary reinforcer such as money, gold stars, poker chips
social reinforcer reinforcement based on receiving attention, approval, or affection from another person
shaping gradually molding responses to a final desired pattern
schedule of reinforcement a rule or plan for determining which responses will be reinforced
fixed ratio schedule (FR) a set number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer. For example, a reinforcer is given for every four correct responses
variable ratio schedule (VR) a varied number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer. For ex, a reinforcer is given after three to seven correct responses, the actual number changes randomly
fixed interval schedule (FI) a reinforcer is given only when a correct response is made after a set amount of time has passed since the last reinforced response. Responses made during the time interval are not reinforced.
Variable Interval Schedule (VI) a reinforcer is given for the first correct response made after a varied amount of time has passed since the last reinforced response. Responses are made during the time interval are not reinforced.
positive punishment aversive(we don’t like it) stimulus is added after some response intending to decrease the probability of that response happening again. – spanking,
negative punishment attractive stimulus remove (something attractive) after a response intending to decrease the probability of that response happening again– taking away cellphone for bad grades
-punishment you are decreasing the likelihood of the behavior happening again -reinforcement you’re increasing likelihood of that behavior happening again How does punishment differ from negative reinforcement?
insight learning problem solving occurs by suddenly perceiving new forms or relationships– Kohler
Created by: AMarcello
Popular Psychology sets




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