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Supply Chain Exam #3

What is work design? act of specifying the contents and methods of a job and is also referred to as job design
What are four key questions that need to be addressed by work/job design? 1. What will be done 2. Who will do it 3. How will it be done 4. Where will it be done
What are the 2 basic approaches to work/job design? Efficiently approach Behavior approach
What are the Pros and Cons of the efficiency approach to job design? Pro - Simplifies training, high productivity, and low wages Con - Difficult to motivate people, high turn over rate, and poor attention to quality
Define job enlargement giving an employee a larger portion of the task by horizontal loading
Define job rotation allowing or requiring employees to periodically exchange jobs by providing them with cross-training
Define job enrichment increasing employee responsibility for planning and coordination tasks by vertical loading
Knowledge-based pay system pay system that rewards employees who undergo training that increase their skills in one or more of these 3 dimensions - horizontal skills - vertical skills - depth skills (teach production workers how to do maintenance on their machines)
Ergonomics concerned with understanding the interactions of human beings with other elements of a system
What is methods analysis and what are some of its goals? a systematic approach to studying how a job is currently done and possibly could be done better goals - eliminate unnecessary motions - combine activities - reduce worker fatigue - improve arrangement of the work place
what is motion study the systematic study of human motions used to perform an operations
What is work measurement used to determine the time it should take to complete the job (is not concerned with job content)
Define Standard Time the amount of time it should take a qualified employee to complete a specific task working at a sustainable rate
Define work Sampling Technique for estimating the proportion of time that a worker or machine spends on various activities
What is aggregate planning intermediate range planning to determine how best to utilize capacity of business to meet market demand during a 2-12 month time horizon
What is sales and operations planning intermediate range planning that seeks to balance supply and demand by integrating planning for operations, marketing, and finance
Define proactive strategies strategies that seek to alter market demand to match capacity
reactive strategies strategies that seek to alter capacity to match market demand
mixed strategies involve seeking to alter both market demand and capacity of business
what are 4 possible reactive strategies for meeting uneven market demand 1. maintain a level workforce 2. maintain a steady output rate 3. match output to demand period by period 4. use of combination of decision variables
Primary advantage of level capacity strategy for meeting uneven demand lower costs due to sable output rates and workforce
Primary advantages of a chase demand strategy for meeting uneven demand low inventory costs higher labor utilization rate when employed
the 4 major inputs for aggregate planning 1. market demand forecast 2. available capacity 3. company policies 4. applicable unit costs
explain disaggregation
explain master scheduling process of developing a detailed plan to produce or deliver specific quantities of specific produces at specific times.
explain rough cut capacity planning used to test the validity of a tentative master schedule by double-checking specific capacities
explain time fences divide the planning horizon for master production schedules into sections
what are the primary inputs for a master scheduling process 1. beginning inventory 2. forecasted demand by period 3. confirmed customer orders by period 4. standard MPS production quantity
What are the primary outputs of a master scheduling process 1. projected on hand inventory 2. projected production quantity 3. available to promise (ATP) inventory
What does Frozen mean in time fences little to no change is possible
what does Slushy mean in time fences some change is possible
what does Liquid mean in time fences major change is possible
what is dependent demand is the demand for components to be used in the production of a finished product
what is Material Requirements Planning (MRP) a computer based information system designed to manage dependent demand
What are the primary inputs for Materials Requirements Planning 1. Master Schedule 2. Bill of Materials 3. Inventory records
Define cumulative lead time the total lead time from start to finish of a product
define Bill of materials a listing of all the components needed to produce 1 unit of a finished good
define product structure tree a visual of a BOM that lists all its components by level
define low level coding restructures BOM for multiple occurrences of a component
explain what MRP system processing does with the master schedule generates/updates the gross requirement, scheduled receipts, projected on hand, net requirements, planned order receipts, and planned order revenue
Define Gross Requirements total expected demand for a component in each time bucket (period)
Define scheduled receipts open orders already scheduled to arrive in each time bucket
define projected on hand expected inventory to be on hand at the beginning of each time bucket
define net requirements actual amount needed for each time period
define planned order receipts quantity expected to be received at the beginning of time period
define planned order releases planned amount of be ordered in each time period on the lead time for planned order receipts in future periods
primary outputs of Materials Requirement Planning 1. planned order - schedule indicating the amount and timing of future orders 2. order releases - authorizing the execution of planned orders 3. changes - revisions of data or quantities of existing orders
what is Manufacturing Resources Planning (MRP) is an expanded approach to operations planning
What is Distribution Requirements Planning (DRP) extends the application of MRP/MRP II concepts to the management of the flow of products from the business to final customers
What is inventory is a stock of store of products and can include both finished goods and components
what is the objective of inventory management to achieve a desired level of customer service while keeping inventory costs reasonable (not keeping costs to a minimum)
Primary reasons for holding inventory 1. meet anticipated customer demand 2. permit operations 3. protect against stockouts 4. take advantage of quantity discounts 5. hedge against price increases 6. take advantage of order cycles 7. smooth production requirments 8. decouple operations
Name the different kinds of inventories that businesses may carry or hold 1. raw materials and purchased parts 2. work in process 3. finished goods 4. tools and supplies 5. maintenance and repairs 6. pipeline inventory
5 elements of an effective inventory management system 1. inventory tracking system 2. reliable forecast of demand 3. knowledge of lead time and variability 4. reasonable estimates of inventory related costs 5. classification system for items in inventory
define periodic system physical count of items in inventory is made at periodic intervals
define perpetual inventory system continuously tracks additions to and removals from inventory
Universal product code (UPC) scanable bar codes to provide info on an item
Point of Sales (POS) system used for inventory tracking and demand forecasting
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Tags provide more info than a UPC, real time infro on status, and eliminates the need for line of sight scanning
Two-Bin system simplified approach to tracking and reordering inventory
Lead time time is take from when you send the order to when you receive it
inventory-related costs that are used in inventory management 1. purchase costs 2. holding (carrying) costs 3. ordering costs 4. set up costs 5. shortage costs
what is the ABC approach to inventory classification classifies inventory items according to some measure of relative importance and allocates control efforts accordingly A - 80% B - 15% C - 5%
Using ABC approach, what are the key decisions for cycle counting 1. how much accuracy is needed 2. when should count be performed 3. who should do the count
what do Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Models determine that quantity by minimizing the sum of annual costs that vary with order size and frequency
assumptions underlying the Basic EOQ Model 1. only 1 product is involved 2. annual demand requirement are known 3. demand is even throughout the year 4. lead time does not vary 5. each order is received in a single delivery 6. there is no quantity discounts
What are Reorder Point (ROP) Models used for? to determine the quantity of inventory on hand for an item of which point more items should be ordered
describe a Fixed-Order-Interval (FOI) Reorder Point Model places orders of varying quantity at fixed intervals ex. for bolts, nails, screws, or nuts
When are Single-Period Reorder Point Models typically used used to manage inventories of perishables and items with limited shelve life
Created by: biestr79
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