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Management 300 Ch 13

Flashcards for Management 300 Ch 13 special edition book for Ball State

Motivation Psychological forces that determine the direction of a person's behavior in an organization, a person's level of effort, and a person's level of persistence
Intrinsically Motivated Behavior Behavior that is performed for its own sake
Prosocially Motivated Behavior Behavior that is performed to benefit or help others
Extrinsically Motivated Behavior Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment
Outcome Anything a person gets from a job or organization
Input Anything a person contributes to his or her job or organization
Expectancy Theory The theory that motivation will be high when workers believe that high levels of effort lead to high performance and high performance leads to the attainment of desired outcomes
Expectancy In expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to which effort results in a certain level of performance
Instrumentality In expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to which performance results in the attainment of outcomes
Valence In expectancy theory, how desirable each of the outcomes available from a job or organization is to a person
Need A requirement or necessity for survival and well-being
Need Theories Theories of motivation that focus on what needs people are trying to satisfy at work and what outcomes will satisfy those needs
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs An arrangement of 5 basic needs that motivate behavior. Maslow proposed that the lowest level of unmet needs is the prime motivator and that only one level of needs is motivational at a time.
Alderfer's ERG Theory The theory that 3 universal needs - for existence, relatedness, and growth - constitute a hierarchy of needs and motivate behavior. Alderfer proposed that needs at more than one level can be motivational at the same time.
Herzberg's Motivator - Hygiene Theory A need theory that distinguishes between motivator needs and hygiene needs and proposes that motivator needs must be met for motivation and job satisfaction to be high.
Need for Achievement The extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and to meet personal standards for excellence
Need for Affiliation The extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having the people around him or her get along with each other
Need for Power The extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others
Equity Theory A theory of motivation that focuses on people's perceptions of the fairness of their work outcomes relative to their work inputes
Equity The justice, impartiality, and fairness to which all organizational members are entitled
Underpayment Inequity The inequity that exists when a person perceives that his or her own outcome-input ratio is less than the ratio of a referent
Overpayment Inequity The inequity that exists when a person perceives that his or her own outcome-input ratio is greater than the ratio of a referent
Goal-Setting Theory A theory that focuses on identifying the types of goals that are most effective in producing high levels of motivation and performance and explaining why goals have these effects
Learning Theories Theories that focus on increasing employee motivation and performance by linking the outcomes that employees receive to the performance of desired behaviors and the attainment of goals
Learning A relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior that results from practice or experience
Operant Conditioning Theory The theory that people learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences
Positive Reinforcement Giving people outcomes they desire when they perform organizationally functional behaviors
Negative Reinforcement Eliminating or removing undesired outcomes when people perform organizationally functional behaviors
Extinction Curtailing the performance of dysfunctional behaviors by eliminating whatever is reinforcing them
Punishment Administering an undesired or negative consequence when dysfunctional behavior occurs
Organizational Behavior Modification The systematic application of operant conditioning techniques to promote the performance of organizationally functional behaviors and discourage the performance of dysfunctional behaviors
Social Learning Theory A theory that takes into account how learning and motivation are influenced by people's thoughts and beliefs and their observations of other people's behavior
Vicarious Learning Learning that occurs when the learner becomes motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person performing it and being reinforced for doing so; also called 'observational learning'.
Self-reinforcer Any desired or attractive outcome or reward that a person gives to himself or herself for good performance
Self-efficacy A person's belief about his or her ability to perform a behavior successfully
Merit Pay Plan A compensation plan that bases pay on performance
Employee Stock Option A financial instrument that entitles the bearer to buy shares of an organization's stock at a certain price during a certain period or under certain conditions
Created by: acglidden
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