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Pharmacology

ANTI INFECTIVE AGENTS Anti Infective Agents

QuestionAnswer
What is sterilization? Kills everything. Complete destruction. Anything that is used to sterilize is going to be too toxic for you. Must use gloves. Do not swallow.
What is sanitization? It reduces the level to bring it down to public health standard. It must meet the minimal regulation. Microbes are still present.
What is germicide/bactericidal? Kills what ever is present.
What is chemotherapy? Anything that has to do with chemicals.
What is antibiotic? Used to kill bacteria.
What is antimicrobial? Going after something which can be a virus and kills it. Kills any microbial that is present.
Selective toxicity When antibiotics get to be dangerous. Selective toxicity's goal is to kill the microbial with out harming the host.
What do Antiseptic agents do? Agents applied to living tissue
What do Disinfectant agents do? Agents applies to inanimate objects.
What are antiseptics used for? Prophylactically and wound cleansing
What are types of antiseptics? Alcohol, iodine, chlorine, phenolic. Do not apply alcohol on an open wound. Chlorine is used to kill. Like clorox. Do not use on skin.
What is the disinfectant drug class called? Aldehydes.
What are aldehydes? They are disinfectants which are viscous. They kill microbes.
What are examples of aldehydes (disinfectants)? Providone iodine; sodium hypochlorite; hydrogen peroxide-inanimate
What are alcohols? Antiseptics.
Which are the two types of alcohols? 1. Ethanol 2. Isopropanol These should not be applied to open wound.
What is Alcohol: Isopropanol concentration? 70% The concentration more germicidal than ethanol. It promotes local vasodilation. Causes more bleed to take place.
What are aldehydes? They work really well. They are disinfectants.
What is a type of aldehydes? 1.Glutaraldegyde (Cidex) it's lethal to all microorganism. Fumes irritate respiratory tract. This is mostly found near Doctors to clean instruments. 2. Formaldehyde. Slower acting and more irritating.
What are iodines? It is a germicidal. It kills.
What are Iodine types? Solutions and tinctures.
What do tinctures contain? Ethanol. These are preferred over the solutions.
What skin type do you use tinctures on? Intact skin.
What is an example of iodines? Povidone.
What is providing and what is it used for? It is less effective than other iodine preparations. It is used primarily prophylaxis. This is the most widely used germicidal.
What are types of chlorine compounds? 1. Oxychlorisene sodium 2. sodium hypochlorite.
What is oxychlorsene sodium? Antiseptic. It is a chlorine compound. It is used as a topical antiseptic. Very useful in drug resistant microbes. Some formulations are used on human body. Needs to be diluted for skin use. It sterilizes everything. It is 1% dilution.
What is Sodium hypochlorite? Disinfectant; It is a chlorine compound. It is unstable and solutions must be prepared fresh for each use. Solution is only good for 24 hours.
What is an example of a phenol? Hexachlorophene (pHisoHex and Septisol) pHisoHex still around and can't be used for infants. It goes through the skin. It is bacteriostatic and it's non effective on gram negative bacteria. Gram positive is the most common on bacteria.
What are the 2 Misc. agents? Hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine (hibiclens)
What is hydrogen peroxide? Excellent disinfectant and sterilizing agent.
Chlorhexidine (hibiclens) Important surgical antiseptic. It is very safe and does not kill viruses.
Antiseptics can be used as ___ but, ___ can't be used as an antiseptic. Disinfectant; Disinfectant
Formaldehyde is used to ____ preserve
Formaldehyde is used to ___ ___ in Dr's offices. clean tools
Aldehydes are lethal to ___ everything
Iodines are low in ____. cost
In order for alcohol to kill it needs to stay ___. this allows it to kill at ___. Moist; 90%
_____ leads to bleeding when placed on wound because it is a ______. Isopropanol; vasodilator
Created by: jwhite223
 

 



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