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M & OB Final

Management & Organizational Behavioral

TermDefinition
Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of vision or goals
Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members
Trait Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from non-leaders.
Behavior Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non-leaders
Contingency Theories of Leadership Contingency Theory adds the leader’s environment or situation aspect to our understanding of leadership effectiveness
Fiedler's Model Effective group performance depends on the proper match between leadership style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control (situational control)
Fiedler's Model: The Leader Leader’s Style is Fixed & Can be Measured by the Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire -The way in which a leader evaluates a co-worker that they least enjoyed working with indicates whether the leader is task- or relationship-oriented
Fiedler's Model: Defining the Situation 1. Leader-Member Relations 2. Task Structure 3. Position Power 1. The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader 2. The degree to which the job assignments are specific, clear, routine 3. Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization
Situational Leadership Model A model that focuses on follower “readiness” -“Readiness” is the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task
House's Path-Goal Theory The Theory: Leaders provide followers with information, support, and resources to help them achieve their goals Leaders help clarify the “path” to the worker’s goals Leaders can display multiple leadership
Leadership Styles: 1. Directive 2. Supportive 3. Participative 4. Achievement-Oriented 1. focuses on the work to be done 2. focuses on the well-being of the worker 3. consults with employees in decision making 4. sets challenging goals
Leader Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 1. In Group 2. Out Group 1. Members are similar to leader, In the leader’s inner circle of communication, Receive more time & attention from leader, Receive greater responsibility & rewards 2. Managed by formal rules & policies, Receive less of leader's attention & exchange
Charismatic Leadership Followers attribute heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when certain behavior is observed
Transactional Leader guide followers to goal accomplishment by clarifying role and task requirements
Transformational Leader Inspire followers to transcend their self-interests for the good of the organization; capable of having profound and extraordinary effect on followers
Attribution Theory of Leadership The idea that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals
Substitutes and Neutralizers Perspective -Substitutes: replace leader’s need for support or initiating structure -Neutralizers: factors that make it impossible for leader behavior to make a difference
Power A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes
Dependency B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires
Formal Power established by an individual’s position in an organization
Formal Power: 1. Coercive Power 2. Reward Power 3. Legitimate Power 1. power base dependent on fear 2. Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable 3. The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization
Personal Power comes from an individual’s unique characteristics as opposed to one’s position
Personal Power: 1. Expert Power 2. Referent Power 1. Influence based on special skills or knowledge 2. Influence based on possession of desirable resources or personal traits
Power Tactics Ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions
Political skill = ability to influence others to enhance own objectives
Impression Management = processes by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them
Conflict One party perceives another part has negatively affected, or about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about
Types of Conflict: 1. Task conflict & Process conflict 2. Relationship conflict 1. content, goals of the work and how the work gets done 2. interpersonal relationships
The Conflict Process - Stage 1 Potential Opposition or Incompatibility -- Causes -Communication, structure (organization variables), & personal variables
The Conflict Process - Stage 2 Cognition and Personalization -Potential for conflict is actualized
The Conflict Process - Stage 3 Intentions: Decisions to act in a given way Dimensions of conflict-handling intentions: Cooperativeness & Assertiveness
The Conflict Process - Stage 4 Behavior
The Conflict Process - Stage 5 Outcome -Functional – When is it constructive? -Dysfunctional – When is it destructive?
Culture System of shared meaning (values, norms and beliefs) held by organizational members that distinguishes organization from others
Culture Characteristics Innovation & Risk Taking, Attention to Detail, Outcome Orientation, People Orientation, Team Orientation, Aggressiveness, Stability
Dominate Culture Expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization’s members
Subculture Mini-cultures within an organization, typically defined by department designations and geographical separation
Strong Culture A culture in which the core values are intensely held and widely shared
How is culture created? by a company founder who establishes organizational values
How is culture substained? selection practices, top management, socialization practices
Stages in the the socialization process: 1. Pre-arrival 2. Encounter 3. Metamorphosis 1. period of learning prior to a new employee joining org. 2. new employee sees what the org. is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge 3. new employee changes and adjusts to the work, work group, and org.
Characteristics of Change -Is constant yet varies in degree and direction -Creates both threats and opportunities -Planned vs accidental change
Who manages change? -Change agents: motivate and implement change vision -Include managers, non-managers, outside consultants
What creates need for change? Nature of workforce, Technology, Economic shocks, Competition, Social trends, World Politics
Why People (Individuals) Resist Change? -Uncertainty/Fear of Unknown -Habit -Fear loss of status, security, money, authority, friendships -Perception that change is incompatible with the goals and interest of the organization
Lewin's Mode: 1. Unfreezing 2. Movement 3. Refreezing 1. unfreezing the staus quo (equillibrium) 2. Changing/Moving to a new state 3. Refreezing to make change permanent (stabilizing new situation)
Kotter's Model 8 step plan for implementing change
Action Research Approach to change based on systematic collection of data, analysis, and selection of a change action based on analysis of data
Organizational Development Collection of change methods, based on humanistic-democratic values, that aim to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being
Stress a dynamic condition resulting from desire for a certain outcome that is both important and uncertain
Consequences of Experienced Stress Physiological, Psychological, Behavioral, Stress/Performance Relationship
Job Satisfaction A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics
How can employees express dissatisfaction? 1. Exit 2. Loyalty 3. Voice 4. Neglect 1. Behavior directed toward leaving the organization 2. Passively waiting for conditions to improve 3. Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions 4. Allowing conditions to worsen
Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, while wishing to maintain membership in the organization
Three dimensions of Organizational Commitment 1. Affective 2. Continuance 3. Normative 1. emotional attachment to organization 2. economic value of staying 3. moral or ethical obligations
Lock's Goal Setting Theory Specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance
Equity Theory Focuses on worker perceptions of the fairness of work outcomes and inputs (distributive justice)
Three kinds of equity: 1. Distributive 2. Interactional 3. Procedural 1. amount of outcome/reward 2. being treated with dignity and respect 3. fairness of outcome process
Expectancy Theory Three relationships are key: Will effort result in performance? E-P expectancy Will performance result in a reward or outcome? P-O expectancy Are available rewards/outcomes valued by employee? Valence
Job Characteristics Model Jobs designed with high levels of the core dimensions directly affect three psychological states of employees: -Knowledge of results -Meaningfulness of work -Personal feelings of responsibility for results
Created by: NickUD
 

 



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