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Psychology

chapter 8 & 11 test

TermDefinition
motivation forces that activate & direct behavior - explaining the "why" behind behavior
components of motivation - activation taking 1st steps towards a goal
components of motivation - persistence continuing to work for a goal despite obstacles
components of motivation - intensity energy & attention applied to achieving a goal
types of motivation - intrinsic (internal) enjoyable & rewarding
types of motivation - extrinsic external reward or avoid consequence
drive theory -biological needs that must be met -unmet needs lead to drives (tension states) -homeostasis
arousal theory -state of alertness & mental/physical activity -motivated to obtain a "just right" level of arousal -too low: something to stimulate -too high: something to reduce
sensation seeking doing crazy things
Maslow's hierarchy of needs -motivation is process where we meet needs -lowest levels: biological & safety -higher levels: social & psychological -lower needs must be met first -ultimate goal is SELF ACTUALIZATION
self-determination theory psychological needs have to be satisfied
autonomy determine & control
competence mastery of tasks
relatedness attachment to others
competence motivation (yourself) -mastering a task -controlling a situation
achievement motivation (better than others) -drive to success - desire to outperform others
3 components of emotion -subjective experience -physiological response -behavioral/expressive response
subjective experience -basic emotions -universal - fear, disgust, anger, surprise, happiness, saddness
physiological response -sympathetic nervous system -fight or flight -other emotions: excitement or joy -amygdala: limbic system *key for fear
expression response -facial expressions are most important -human face 7000+ expressions -hard-wired (evidence from blind/deaf kids)
cultural influences -display rules: how emotions should be expressed, where & when to express, disguise true feelings
theories of emotion -James-Lange -chick or egg type dilemma -first, stimulus perceived -then, physiological arousal -last, label feelings with emotion -facial feedback theory
theories of emotion -smith & lazarus -cognitive appraisal theory -stimulation happens first -them physiological & emotional response
personality -unique & relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling & behaving -explanation of differences, similarities, and uniqueness
psychoanalytic theory (sigmund freud) -driven by unconscious motives & forces -mind is like iceberg; only aware of "tip" -dynamic struggle between elements of personality
The Id (unconscious) -represents instinctual drives -eros: life instinct (survival), includes libido (sexual) -thanatos: death instinct, be aggressive/reckless -operates on pleasure principle: relentless drive to immediate gratification, avoid feeling stress
The Ego (conscious awareness) -organized, rational, planned -tries to balance urges of Ids w/ real world limitations -if compromise isn't readily available, urge is removed from conscious awareness
The SuperEgo (preconscious awareness) -develops early childhood -the conscience, internal moral guardian -sets high standards for behavior
Ego Defense Mechanisms -protect ego from anxiety caused by unconscious impulses or punitive superego
repression -most frequently used -force themselves to forget
denial -falls to recognize existence of what makes you feel uncomfortable
regression revert back to behavior previously acted
psychosexual stages of development -sex instinct is a major factor in personality -each stage focuses on part of body providing pleasure -leads to fixation, didn't resolve stage/stuck, if not resolved
stage one, oral stage -frustration, over indulgence -gratification obtained thru oral activities (eating, etc.)
stage two, anal stage -pottytraining -gratification obtained thru contraction & relaxation of the muscles controlling elimination
stage three, phallic (penis) stage -phallic region is erogenous zone -oedipus & electra complexes -identification w/ same sex parent -homosexuality if not identified
stage four, latency stage -middle elementary school age -sexual feelings remain unconsciou
stage five, genital stage -adolescence - sexual gratification thru intercourse w/ opposite gender
criticisms in freud's theory -lack of evidence -lack of testablity -sexist
3 things neo-freudons disagreed w/ freud on -behavior is primarily motivated by sexual urges -personality is fundamentally determined by childhood experiences -generally pessimistic view of human nature
Jung (yung) -motivated by need for wholeness & harmony -collective unconsciousness: shared experiences
archetypes universal themes
anima feminine side of males must recognize to achieve harmony
animus masculine side of females must recognize to achieve harmony
humanistic perspective (touchy, feely, good in everyone) -emphasizes inherent goodness, human potential, and self-awareness -focus on healthy personality -self-concept: conditional & unconditional positive regard *i love you no matter what
social cognitive perspective -emphasizes conscious cognitive processes and social experiences
reciprocal determination personality and behavior are caused by interaction among behavior, cognition, environment
self-efficacy "i think i can"
trait perspective individual differences
traits predisposition to behave in a certain way
5 factor model -openness to experience: new things & ideas -conscientiousness: order, self-control, industry (successful) -extraversion: preference for being around people -agreeableness: easygoing -neuroticism: negativity, anxiety
personality assessment observations and interviews
self-report inventories standardized tests
Created by: mnguyenx3