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Kines Final

Kinesiology Final (written)

How many bones are in the foot/ankle complex? 26
How many joints are in the foot/ankle complex? >30
What bone forms the roof and medial wall of the ankle mortise? tibia
What bone forms the lateral border of the ankle mortise? fibula
The fibula bears __% of the weight 10-15%
What bone is the keystone of the foot? talus
How many bones does the talus articulate with? What are their names? 4: tibia, fibula, calcaneus, navicular
The talus is part of __(#) major joints 3
What is the only bone in the foot without a muscular attachment? talus
__% of the talus is covered with cartilage 60%
Is the talus wider anteriorly or posteriorly? anteriorly
What 2 structure form the tarsal sinus/canal? sulcus calcanei + sulcus tali
Angle of incidence angle of talus on calcaneus (35-40 degrees)
Flatter angle of incidence -> more movement (sheering)
Midfoot (bones) navicular,cuboid, cuneiforms
Navicular posterior facet (convex/concave?) CONCAVE posterior facet (for convex head of talus)
Navicular articulates with... talus (post), and 3 cuneiforms (ant)
Which cuneiform is the largest? 1st
Which cuneiform is recessed for stability? 2nd
Which cuneiform articulates with a metatarsal? all of them
Cuboid articulates with __ metatarsals 2 metatarsals (#4 + 5)
Cuboid has a lateral groove for ____ Fibularis longus (insertion)
Cuboid articulates with ___, anteriorly, and ___, posteriorly 4th + 5th metatarsals (ant), calcaneus(post)
Forefoot (bones) metatarsals, phalanges
Metatarsals have a convex ___ and concave ___ convex head, concave base
Which metatarsal has a styloid process? 5th
Which metatarsal is the most mobile? 1st
Which metatarsal is recessed for stability? 2nd
What is a "ray?" Metatarsal + associated cuneiform (1-3)
Morton's toe congenital insufficiency (2nd toe longer than other toes)
How many phalanges does the 1st toe have? 2
What special structure is located in the plantar aspect of flexor hallucis brevis? sesamoid bone (anatomic pulley)
Plane of motion + axis: dorsi/plantarflexion sagittal plane, frontal/oblique axis
Plane of motion + axis: eversion/inversion (foot) frontal plane, longitudinal axis
Plane of motion + axis: abduction/adduction (foot) transverse plane, vertical axis
How many planes of motion are involved in pronation/supination (of the foot)? 3
Pronation is a combination of these motions dorsiflexion, eversion, abduction, IR (of leg)
Supination is a combination of these motions plantarflexion, inversion, adduction, ER (of leg)
Superior tib-fib joint (type of joint) plane synovial (concave fibula, convex tibia)
Motion of superior tib-fib joint sup/inf slide, rotation of fibular
Inferior tib-fib joint (type of joint) SYNDESMOSIS (no capsule; concave fib on
Tibial torsoin (normal angle) 12-18 degrees
Most congruent joint in human body talocrural joint (ankle)
Talocrural joint = hinge, 1 DF, convex talus on concave tibia/fibula
DF Talocrural joint 1
Dorsiflexion/plantarflexion occurs around a __ axis (frontal-) oblique
Roll/glide dorsiflexion ant roll, post glide
Roll/glide plantarflexion post roll, ant glide
Lateral talocural ligaments anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular, posterior talofibular
Medial talocrural ligaments deltoid ligament, spring ligament
Subtalar joint (type, motion, axis, CP) 1 DF, sup/pronation, axis = 42 de sup from trans, 16 de med. from sagital, CP = supination
Subtalar supination (NWB; calcaneal motions) calcaneal inversion, adduction, plantarflexion
Calcaneovalgus (aka) excessive pronation
Calcaneovarus (aka) excessive supination
Subtalar supination (WB; talus) talar abduction, dorsiflexion, tib/fib ER
Form closure inherent stability of a joint (static stabilizers)
Force closure stability of joint via muscular contraction
Type of joint (SI) plane synovial
What muscles provide force closure to the SI joint? Posterior (glut max + latissimus), anterior (obliques + adductors)
Open kinetic chain supination calcaneal adduction, plantarflexion, inversion
Open kinetic chain pronation calcaneal abduction, dorsiflexion, eversion
Closed kinetic chain supination talar abduction, inversion, dorsiflexion
Closed kinetic chain pronation talar eversion, adduction, plantarflexion
Extreme of supination -> pronatory twist (evert, abduct)
Extreme of pronation -> supinatory twist (inversion, adduct)
Posture position of carrying one's body (optimize efficiency, support)
static posture posture when staying still
dynamic posture posture with movement
postural control ability to maintain stability
static postural control maintain stability against gravity
ideal posture all body segments align vertically
Plumb line through body ext. auditory meatus -> vert. body of lumbar -> greater troch. -> ant axis of knee -> slightly ant. to lateral malleolus
Sway-back posture head forward, T=kyphosis, L=flexion, post pelvic tilt
Military-type posture lumbar lordosis, ant. pelvic tilt
kyphosis-lordosis posture head forward, T=kyphosis, L=lordosis, pelvis = ant. tilt
flat back head forward, trunk straight
lordosis -> stress on lumbosacral angle
postural pain syndrome pain from mech. stress (prolonged poor posture)
postural dysfunction adaptive shortening of muscle
Upper-crossed posture (tightness + weakness) tight upper traps, tight pecs + weak rhomboids, lower traps, deep neck flexors
Lower-crossed posture (tightness + weakness) tight erector spinae, iliopsoas + weak abs, gluts
Top causes of back strains/sprains lifting (57%), falls (20%), push/pull (12%)
Top causes of back pain strain (83%), sprain (10%), contusion (2.3%), herniated disk (.4%)
Ergonomics -> comfort, less strain, more efficiency
Anthropometrics monitoring population dimensions
Risk factors for CTD + back injuries *posture, *heavy work, *bending/twisting, force, repetition, duration, environment, recovery, health, psychosocial factors
Reducing risk of back injury neutral, work w/in reach, stay in shape, use right tools (e.g. step stool)
Organizational changes to decrease risk of back injury mech. assistance, improve design (ergo)
Purpose of ergo assessment (to company) save cost, compliance with reg/OSHA, ID problem, limit liability, accommodation
Work of ergo assessment ID risk + job safety, create recommendation
OSHA (occupational safety and health admin) ensure safety in workplace
OSHA recommended ergo program (things to do) 1. analysis, 2. hazard prevention, 3. med management, 4. training + education
Action limit 75% of females, 99% of males can lift load
Maximum permissible limit 1% of women, 25% of men can lift
Risk level: <AL normal risk
Risk level: AL<__<ML need administration or engineering controls
Risk level: >ML unacceptable w/o engineering controls
DF of talocalcaneonavicular joint 1 DF (3 planes)
Type of joint: tarsal-metatarsal joint plane synovial
Dorsiflexion of rays 1st = invert + adduct, 5th = evert + abduct
Plantarflexion of rays 1st = evert + abduct, 5th = invert + adduct
Type of joint: metatarsalphalangeal joint condyloid, 2 DF
1st metatarsalphalangeal joint has (special) 2 sesamoid bones
Type of joint: interphalangeal joint hinge, 1 DF
Arch of foot -> shock absorption, propulsion
Lateral arch contributes to balance + shock absorption
What bones for the transverse arch? tarsals + metatarsals
Support of plantar arches (ligaments) spring lig, long/short plantar ligs, plantar aponeurosis
What muscles support the arch of the foot? Fibularis longus, Posterior tibialis (~ant. tibialis)
What muscle(s) of the foot act only on one joint? NONE (no muscles act on only one joint)
Muscle that slows down pronation during gait tibialis posterior
Mallet toe flexion contracture of DIP
Hammer toe flexion contracture of PIP
Claw toe PIP and DIP hyperflexed
Hallux valgus bunion
Sign of excessive pronation (hyperpronation) navicular drop (rear foot valgus)
Created by: cbaweiss
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