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Grapefruit juice nfluences metabolism b/c it inhibits CYP3A4; b/c of furanocoumarins in the juice leads to increased levels of calcium channel blockers, cyclosporine, tacrolimus[Prograf], statins
CYP1A2 cruciferous vegetables, methylxanthine-containg beverages[caffeine], charcoal broiling affects many drugs including theophylline
Foods high in VitK: may interfere with coumadin spinach, mustard greens, parsley, kale, turnip greens, collard greens, swiss chard, and moderate levels in green leaf, broccoli, endive, romaine, brussel sprouts
ADA supplement regulations Vit D: infants and children, and adults; folic acid for child-bearing age females planning to become pregnant 400mcg; adults over 50, vit b12, calcium and D
websites for resources eatright.org; nutritioncare.org; http://ods.od.nih.gov
Fiber: dietary fiber and functional fiber dietary: nondigestible carbs; functional is nondigestible carbs
dietary fiber benefits prevent constipation, lower cholesterol, improve cardiovascular health, feeling of fullness
recommended fiber intake for cardiovascular health at least 25g/d
benefits of increased soluble fiber may include better glucose control in DM and improved blood lipid levels
Vitamin A[deficiency rare]: role in vision, bone growth, reproduction, immune function, cell division and differentiation. There are two types: preformed vit A[derived from animal sources; and provitaminA carotenoid[plant sources]
Vitamin B1[thiamine] deficiency leads to beriberi or Wernicke's encephalopathy[alcoholics]
Vitamin B2[riboflavin][deficiency rare] has been found to decrease headaches and migraines I nsome patients: 25-400mg daily for migraine prevention
Vitamin B3[niacin]: antilipidemic. Deficiency results in pellagra[the four d's; diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death]
Vitamin B6[pyridoxine]; needed for protein and RBC metabolism and glucose regulation. Deficiency may be from drug induced by isoniazid[INH][for TB], cycloserine[TB], hydrazine
Vitamin B12: essential for RBC formation and neurological function. Deficiency will result in: megaloblastic anemia, fatigue, loss of appetite, and neuro changes[n/t of hands and feet]
Vitamin C[ascorbic acid]. defienc;y results in scurvy[fatigue, malaise, gum inflammation or bleeding]; smokers have decreased vit c levels; also at risk are infants fed evaporated or boiled milk, malabsorption disorders, end-stage renal disease
Mixes results from studies have shown possible benefits of Vit C reduced risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, breast cancer
Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin:critical to bone health and absorption of calcium from the intestinal tract must be converted by liver and kidneys if synthesized from sunlight Liver; converts to calcidiol; kidney; converts to calcitriol[regulates serum calcium and phosphate levels] found in egg yolks and fatty fish[salmon, mackerel]
Vit D deficiency results in rickets in children; osteomalacia in adults
Vitamin K: critical component of blood clotting found in many foods and synthesized by intestinal bacteria; given to infants at birth
Coumadin interferes with vitamin K dependent clotting factors II,VII,IX,X
Folate: critical to the production and maintenance of new cells. Deficiency occurs in time of increased demand, or increased loss pregnancy, lactation[demand]; malabsorption, alcohol abuse, dialysis, liver disease[loss]
Folate deficiency produces macrocytic-normochromic anemia: Sx include glossitis, stomatitis, nausea, anorexia, diarrhea, systolic ejection murmur corrected efficiently with oral folic acid
Calcium required for muscle contraction, blood vessel health, bone health, normal nerve conduction. risk for deficiency postmenopausal women, amenorrheic women, women with female athlete triad, pts with lactose intolerance, vegans
Iron regulation of cell growth and differentiation, component of oxygen transport. Deficiency results in microcytic-hypochromic anemia and have RBCs that are small in size, pale, and low hgb Iron-deficiency anemia reduces O2 carrying capacity leading to fatigue and decreased immunity
Omega 3: polyunsaturated fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid[ALA], converted in the body to eicosapentaenoic acid[EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid[DHA]
Omega 6: linoleic acid[LA] should be consumed less than Omega 3's
Evidence to support benefit of Omega 3s in cardiovascular effects, vascular protective effects, anti-inflammatory, reduced triglycerides being tested for effects on autism and ADHD
Plant sterols are in all plant based foods and help lower cholesterol by competing with cholesterol in the intestine reducing the amount of cholesterol that is absorbed.
Plant sterols may reduce beta-carotene levels
intake of 2g/d of plant sterols have shown decrease of 6-10% in LDL and more combined with other interventions low saturated fat and cholesterol diet, dietary fiber and drugs
Probiotics: lactobacillus acidophilus, and bifidobacterium are most common in the intestinal microflora. Benefits include use in rotavirus-associated acute diarrhea in children reduced diarrhea by 1-3 days; antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults; inflammatory bowel disorders and necrotizing enterocolitis[especially in preemies]; irritable bowel syndrome; H.pyori
Created by: heatherbrown2020