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Antiemetics

QuestionAnswer
Antihistamines: have strong anticholinergic effects Dramamine,benadryl,vistaril,antivert especially helpful in n/v associated with motion sicknessb/c of their depression of conduction in the vestibulocerebellar pathway
phenothiazines: block dopamine receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone[CTZ], also bind to and block cholinergic, alpha1-adrenergic, and histamine 1 Phenergan, Compazine cross the blood brain barrier
cannabinoid dronabinol[Marinol]
5HT3 receptor antagonists: block serotonin both peripherally on vagal nerve terminals and centrally in the CTZ Aloxi, Anzemet, Kytril, Zofran
miscellaneous drug: inhibits emetic stimulation of the CTZ Tigan
Antihistamines: precautions and contraindications [b/c of anticholinergic effects], glaucoma, seizure, pyloric obstruction, hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular, prostatic hypertrophy contraindicated in severe liver disease
phenothiazines: precautions and contraindications contraindicated in Parkinson's, narrow angle glaucoma, bone marrow depression, severe cardiovascular or hepatic disease use cautiously in respiratory disease[silent pneumonia may develop], or where aspiration is a risk
cannabinoid: precautions and contraindications allergy to sesame oil, may lower the seizure threshold
5HT 3 receptors: precautions may mask progressive ileus, Zofran ODT contains aspartame and should be used with caution in pts with phenylketonuria
long term use of phenothiazines has been associated with blood dyscrasia that occur when between 4-10 weeks of therapy
Created by: heatherbrown2020
 

 



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