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Med Term Ch13

Special Senses: Eyes and Ears

TermDefinition
caratact opacity of the lens of the eyes, usually occurring as a result of aging, trauma, metabolic disease, or the adverse effect of certain medications or chemicals
cornea transplant Keratoplasty.procedure in which a damaged cornea is replaced by the cornea from the eye of a human cadaver
glaucoma eye disease in which increased eyeball pressure causes gradual loss of sight
ocular pertaining to the eye or sense of sight
radial keratotomy surgery to correct myopia or nearsightedness by changing the shape of the cornea
cornea transparent part of the eye that covers the iris and pupil
sleep apnea condition in which breathing stops for more than ten seconds during sleep
ophthalmology study of the eyes (organs of sight)
otolaryngology study of ears (organs of hearing). oldest study in the US
optometrist. optician specialize in providing corrective lenses for the eyes
ENT physicians (ear nose throat) treat sinuses, allergies, sense of smell disorders
eyes most important sense organs of body. provide vision
ears enable us to hear and balance
blephr/o eyelid
choroid/o choroid
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva
corne/o cornea
cor/o pupil
core/o pupil
pupill/o pupil
dacry/o tear. lacrimal apparatus (duct, sac, or gland)
lacrim/o tear. lacrimal apparatus (duct, sac, or gland)
dipl/o double
irid/o iris
kerat/o horny tissue, hard, cornea
ocul/o eye
ophthalm/o eye
opt/o eye, vision
retin/o retina
acous/o hearing
audi/o hearing
audit/o hearing
myring/o tympanic membrane (eardrum)
typan/o typanic membrane (eardrum)
ot/o ear
salping/o tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)
-acusis hearing
-cusis hearing
-opia vision
-opsia vision
exo- outside
hyper- excessive, above normal
achromatopsia color blindness. congenital deficiency in color perception that is more common in men
astigmatism refractive disorder in which excessive curvature of the cornea or lens causes light to be scattered over the retina rahter than focused on a single point resulting in a distorted image
cataract degenerative disease due to mainly to the against process in which the lens of the eye becomes progressively cloudy, causing decreased vision
conjunctivitis pink eye. inflammation of the conjunctiva that can be caused by bacteria, allergy, irritation, or a foreign body
diabetic retinology retinal damage marked by aneurysmeal dilation and bleeding of blood vessels for the formation of a new blood vessels causing visual changes in diabetic patients
hordeolum sty. small, purulent inflammatory infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid
macular degeneration breakdown of tissues in the macula resulting in loss of central vision
photophobia unusual intolerance and sensitivity to light that occurs in such disorders as meningitis, eye inflammation, measles, and rubella
retinal detachment separation of the retina from the choroid which disrupts vision and results in blindness if not repaired
strabismus muscular eye disorder in which the eyes turn from the normal position so they deviate in different directions
estropia cross-eye. convergent strabismus. strabismus in which these is deviation of the visual axis of one eye toward that of the other eye, resulting in diplopia.
extropia wall-eye. divergent strabismus. strabismus in which there is deviation of the visual axis of one eye away from that of the other, resulting in diplopia
hearing loss loss of the sense or perception of sound
anacusis total deafness (complete loss of hearing)
conductive results from any condition that prevents sound waves from being transmitted to the auditory receptors
presbycusis impairment of hearing that results form the aging process
sensorineural nerve deafness. inability of nerve stimuli to be delivered to the brain from the inner ear due to damage to the auditory (acoustic) nerve or cochlea
meniere disease rare disorder characterized by progressive deafness, vertigo, and tinnitus, possibly due to swelling of membraneous structures within the labyrith
otitis media OM inflammation of the middle ear, which is commonly the result of an upper respiratory infection URI and may be treated with tympanostomy tube insertion
otosclerosis progressive deafness due to ossification in the bony labyrinth of the inner ear
tinnitus ringing or tinkling noise heard constantly or intermittently in one or both ears, even in a quiet environment. results from damage to inner ear structures associated with hearing
vertigo sensation of moving around in space or a feeling of spinning or dizziness that usually results from inner ear structure damage associated with balance and equilibrium
tonometry screening test to detect glaucoma that measures intraocular pressure and to determine if its elevated
visual acuity test standard eye examination to determine the smallest letters a person can read on a Snellen chart, or E chart, or at a distance of 20 feet
audiometry test that measures hearing acuity at various sound frequencies
otoscopy visual examination of the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane using an otoscope
tuning fork test hearing test that uses a tuning fork (instrument that produces a constant pitch when struck) that is struck and then placed against or near the bones on the side of the head to assess nerve and bone conduction of sound
rinne evaluates bone conduction of sound in one ear at a time
weber evaluates bone conduction of sound in both ears at the same time
cataract surgery excision of a lens affects by a cataract
phacoemulsification small incision cataract surgery. excision of the lens by ultrasonic vibrations that break the lens into tiny particles, which are suctioned out of the eye.
iridectomy excision of a portion of the iris used to relieve intraocular presure in patients with glaucoma
laser iridotomy laser surgery that creates an opening on the rim of the iris to allow aqueous humor to flow between the antieror and posterior chambers to relieve IOP that occurs as a result of glaucoma and is replacing iridectomy because it is a safer procedure
laser photocoagulation use of a laser beam to seal leaking or hemorrhaging retinal blood vessels used in treatment of diabetic retinopathy
cochlear implant electronic transmitter surgically implanted into the cochlea of a deaf person to restore healing
myringoplasty tympanoplasty. surgical repair of a perforated eardrum with a tissue graft to correct hearing loss
myringotomy incision of the typanic membrane (eardrum) to relieve pressure and drain fluid from the middle ear or to insert tympanostomy tubes in the eardrum via surgery
antiglaucoma drugs reduce intraocular pressure by lowering the amount of aqueous humor in the eyeball, reducing its production or increasing its outflow
miotics cause the pupil to constrict. treat glaucoma
mydriatics cause the pupil to dilate and prepare the eye for an internal examination
vertigo and motion sickness drugs decrease sensitivity of the inner ear to motion and prevent nerve impulses from the inner ear from reaching the vomiting center of the brain
wax emulsifiers loosen and help remove impacted cerumen (ear wax)
glaucoma aqueous humor fails to drain and accumulates in the anterior chamber of the eye, causing elevated intraocular pressure IOP
intraocular pressure IOP leads to degeneration and atrophy of the retina and optic nerve
optic angle glaucoma most common form of glaucoma. results from degenerative changes that cause congestion and reduce flow of aqueous humor through the canal of Schlemm. it is painless, but it destroys peripheral vision, causing tunnel vision
closed angle glaucoma emergency. caused by anatomically narrow angle between the iris and the cornea, prevents outflow of aqueous humor from the eye into the lymphatic system, causes sudden increase in IOP. symptoms: sever pain, blurred vision, photophobia. leads to blindness
tympanostomy ear tubes or pressure-equalizing PE tubes. plastic cylinders surgically inserted into the eardrum to drain fluid and equalize pressure between the middle and outer ear. used on children whose ears are nonrespondant to normal treatments. under anesthesia
myringotomy small opening is made in the eardrum, followed by tube insertion
Created by: 697149295