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Med Term Ch12

Musculoskeletal System

TermDefinition
arthritis inflammation of a joint (with pain, swelling, and stiffness)
arthroplasty surgery to reshape, reconstruct, or replace a diseased or damaged join
articulate joint. site of contract between two bones
contraction shortening or tightening of muscle
musculoskeletal pertaining to muscles and the skeleton
radiography production of captured shadow images on photographic film through the action of ionizing radiation passing through the body from an external source
synovial fluid lubricating fluid of the joint secreted by the synovial membrane in the joint
orthopedics branch of medicine concerned with prevention, diagnosis, care, and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders
rheumatologist doctor specializes in arthritis treatment. also in diseases of joints, muscles, and bones
chiropractic medicine system of therapy based on theory that disease is caused by pressure on nerves. they do radiography. and physical manipulating the spinal cord
contraction body muscles help maintain body posture
fasci/o band, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles)
fibr/o fiber, fibrous tissue
leiomy/o smooth muscle (visceral)
lumb/o loins (lower back)
muscul/o muscle
my/o muscle
tendon
tend/o tendon
tendin/o tendon
carp/o carpus (wrist bones)
cervic/o neck. cervix uteri
cost/o ribs
crani/o cranium (skull)
humer/o humerus (upper arm bone)
metacarp/o metacarpus (hand bone)
phalang/o phalanges (bones of fingers and toes)
spondyl/o vertebra (backbone)
vertebr/o vertebra (backbone)
stern/o sternum (breastbone)
calcane/o calcaneum
femor/o femur (thigh bone)
fibul/o fibula (smaller, outer bone of lower leg)
patell/o patella (kneecap)
pelv/i pelvis
pelv/o pelvis
radi/o radiation, x-ray. radius (lower arm bone, thumb side)
tibi/o tibia (larger bone of lower leg)
ankyl/o stiffness, bent, crooked
arthr/o joint
chondr/o cartilage
lamin/o lamina (part of vertebral arch)
myel/o bone marrow, spinal cord
orth/o straight
oste/o bone
-clasia to break, surgical fracture
-clast to break
-plegia paralysis
-sarcoma malignant tumor of connective tissue
dia- through, across
peri- around
muscular dystrophy MD group of hereditary diseases characterized by progressive degeneration of the muscles, leading to increasing weakness and debilitation, including Duchenne dystrophy (most common form)
myasthenia gravis MG autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by progressive fatigue and severe muscle weakness, particulary evident with facial muscles and ptosis of the eyelids
rotator cuff injury injury to the capsule of the shoulder joint, which is reinforced by muscles and ptosis of the eyelids
sprain trauma to a joint that causes injury to the surrounding ligament, accompanied by pain and disability, such as an eversion sprain that occurs when the foot is twisted outward
strain trauma to a muscle from overuse or excessive forcible stretch
talipes equinovarus clubfoot. congenital deformity of the food
tendinitis tendonitis. inflammation of a tendon, usually caused by injury or overuse
torticollis wryneck. spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles causing stiffness and twisting of the neck
arthritis inflammation of a joint usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and changes in structure
gouty gout. arthritis caused by excessive uric acid in the body
osteoarthritis progressive degenerative joint disease characterized by bone spurs (osteophytes) and destruction of articular cartilage
rheumatoid arthritis chronic systemic inflammatory disease affecting the synovial membranes of multiple joints, eventually resulting in crippling deformities and immobility
carpal tunnel syndrome CTS pain or numbness resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (wrist canal through which the flexor tendons and median nerve pass)
contracture fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
crepitation grating sound made by movement of bone ends rubbing together indicating a fracture or joint destruction
Ewing sarcoma malignant tumor that develops from bone marrow, usually in long bones or the pelvis and most commonly in adolescent boys
fracture any break in a bone
herniated disk prolapsed disk. herniation or rupture of the nucleus pulposus (center gelatinous material within an intervetebral disk) between two vertebrae
osteoporosis decrease in bone density with an increase in porosity, caused bones to become brittle and increasing the risk of fractures
pagent disease osteitis deformans. skeletal disease affecting elderly people that cause chronic inflammation of bones, resulting in thickening and softening of bones and bowing of long bones
rickets rachitis. form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency
sequestrum fragment of a necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue
kyphosis hunchback. increased curvature of the thoracic region of the vertebral column, leading to a humpback posture
lordosis forward curvature of the lumbar region of the vertebral column leading to a swayback posture
scoliosis abnormal sideward curvature of the spine to the left or right that eventually causes back pain, disk disease, or arthritis
spondylitis inflammation of one or more vertebrae
ankylosing spondylitis rheumatoid spondylitis. chronic inflammatory disease of unknown origin that first affects the spine and is characterized by fusion and loss of mobility of two or more vertebrae
spondylolisthesis spinal cord compression. partial forward dislocation of one vertebrae over the one below it, most commonly the fifth lumbar vertebrae over the first sacral vertebrae
subluxation partial dislocation. partial or incomplete dislocation of a bone from its normal location within a joint, causing loss of function of the joint
arthrocentesis puncture of a joint space with a needle to obtain samples of synovial fluid for diagnostic purposes, instill medications, or remove accumulated fluid from joints to relieve pain
arthroscopy visual examination of the interior of a joint and its structures using a thin, flexible, fiberoptic scope called an arthroscope. which contains a mini camera and projects images on a monitor to guide instruments during procedures
arthroplasty surgical reconstruction or replacement of a painful, degenerated joint to restore mobility in rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis or to correct a congenital deformity
total hip arthroplasty total hip replacement. replacement of the femoral head and acetabulum with prostheses that are fastened into the bone
spequestrectomy excision of a sequestrum (segment of necrosed bone)
bone reabsorption inhibitors reduce the reabsorption of bones in treatment of weak and fragile bones as seen in osteoporosis and Paget disease
gold salts treat rheumatoid arthritis by inhibiting activity within the immune system by preventing further disease progression
muscle relaxants relieve muscle spasms, pain, and stiffness
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation in treatment of musculoskeletal conditions, such as sprains and strains, and inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis bursitis, gout, and tendinitis
pathologic fracture fracture caused by a disease
autoimmune disease reaction against one's own joint tissue (especially synovial fluid)
rheumatoid factor substance detected in blood test of patients with rheumatoid arthritis
vasculitis nodules that develop as RA worsens
corticosteroids reduce pain and inflammation.
treatement of RA physical therapy, heat applications, drugs, anti-inflammatory durgs, corticosteroids
Created by: 697149295
 

 



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