Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Radiology Test 2

QuestionAnswer
extra oral receptor is... image receptor outside the patient such as a Panoramic
intraoral receptor is... Image receptor goes inside the mouth
what are the three types of radiographs? periapical, occlusal, interproximal or bitewing
what is the definition of a full mouth survey? Periapical radiographs of all the tooth barring areas, bitewings as necessary
tube head pointing downward is... positive such as in the maxillary periapicals
tube head pointing upward is... negative such as in the mandibular periapicals
what happened if you get foreshortening of teeth? too great a vertical angulation
what happened if you elongation of teeth? not enough vertical angulation
what is the bisecting line angle technique? x-ray beam perpendicular to the bisecting line of the long axis of the tooth, does not use a film holder, isosceles triangle for equal distortion
what is paralleling technique? X-ray beam perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth, film is not angled.
what is the one rule that paralleling technique violates? does not keep the film receptor as close to the teeth because bone gets in the way
what is the blue color on Rinn take? anterior periapicals
what does the yellow color on Rinn take? posterior periapicals
what does the red color on Rinn take? bitewings
when do you never use cotton rolls on a Rinn device? NEVER BITEWINGS, can for periapicals
Maxillary Central-Lateral incisor periapical: Maxillary Central/Lateral Incisor Projections right and left what is the LANDMARK? the embrasure between the central and lateral incisors is centered on the biteblock. The incisal edge should be on the edge of the bite block so the film is placed in the well into the mouth
why do we always take anterior X-rays first? easier to see what we are doing, makes the patient more comfortable and trusting of the clinician
Maxillary Central-Lateral incisor periapical: Maxillary Central/Lateral Incisor Projections right and left what is the IMAGE FEILD include all of the central and lateral incisors and their periapical areas
Maxillary Central-Lateral incisor periapical: Maxillary Central/Lateral Incisor Projections right and left what is the SENSOR? size 1 placed in a vertical position
Maxillary Canine Periapical: Maxillary Canine Projections LANDMARK the crown of the canine is centered on the bite block. The cusp should be on the edge of the bite block, so that the sensor is placed well into the mouth
Maxillary Canine Periapical: Maxillary Canine Projections IMAGE FEILD should include all of the canine and its periapical area, the distal of the lateral incisor and the mesial of the first premolar
what should we not worry about on Maxillary Canine Periapical: Maxillary Canine Projections distal of the canine being overlapped will get that in the premolar bitewing or premolar PA
Maxillary Canine Periapical: Maxillary Canine Projections SENSOR sensor #1 placed in a vertical position
Mandibular Central Incisor periapical: Mandibular Central Incisor Projection LANDMARK the embrasure between the central and lateral incisors is centered on the bite block. The incisal edges should be on the edge of the bite block, so that the film is placed well into the mouth
Mandibular Central Incisor periapical: Mandibular Central Incisor Projection IMAGE FEILD include all of the central and lateral incisors and their periapical areas, the mesial portions of the adjacent central incisor and canine
Mandibular Central Incisor periapical: Mandibular Central Incisor Projection SENSOR size #1 placed in a vertical position
Mandibular Lateral Incisor- Canine Periapical: Mandibular Lateral Incisor/Canine Projections (right and left) LANDMARK the embrasure between the canine and lateral incisor is centered on the bite block. The incisal edges of the teeth should be approximately half-way out on the biteblock with the sensor between the teeth and the tongue
Mandibular Lateral Incisor- Canine Periapical: Mandibular Lateral Incisor/Canine Projections (right and left) IMAGE FEILD : include all of the canine and lateral incisor, their periapical areas, the distal portion of the adjacent central incisor and the mesial portion of the first premolar
Mandibular Lateral Incisor- Canine Periapical: Mandibular Lateral Incisor/Canine Projections (right and left) SENSOR size #1 sensor is placed in a vertical position
Maxillary Premolar Periapical: Maxillary Premolar Projections (right and left) LANDMARK the embrasure between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar should be centered on the bite block. The buccal cusps should be aligned with the edge of the bite block so that the sensor is placed well into the mouth
Maxillary Premolar Periapical: Maxillary Premolar Projections (right and left) IMAGE FEILD include all of both premolars, and the first molar, their periapical areas, the distal of the canine and the mesial of the second molar
Maxillary Premolar Periapical: Maxillary Premolar Projections (right and left) SENSOR size #2 sensor is placed in the horizontal position
Maxillary Molar Periapical: Maxillary Molar Projections (right and left) LANDMARK the crown of the 2nd molar should be centered on the bite block. The buccal cusps should be aligned with the edge of the bite block so that the sensor is placed well into the mouth
Maxillary Molar Periapical: Maxillary Molar Projections (right and left) IMAGE FEILD : include all of the second and third molars and their periapical areas, all of the maxillary tuberosity, and the distal of the first molar all areas of the bone behind the tooth
Maxillary Molar Periapical: Maxillary Molar Projections (right and left) SENSOR size #2 sensor is placed in the horizontal position
Mandibular Premolar Periapical: Mandibular Premolar Projections (right and left) LANDMARK the embrasure between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar should be centered on the bite block. The sensor should be placed as close to the lingual alveolar ridge as practical
Mandibular Premolar Periapical: Mandibular Premolar Projections (right and left) IMAGE FEILD the field should include all of both premolars, the first molar, the distal of the canine, and the mesial of the second molar
Mandibular Premolar Periapical: Mandibular Premolar Projections (right and left) SENSOR Size #2 sensor is placed in the horizontal position
Mandibular Molar Periapical: Mandibular Molar Projections (right and left) IMAGE FEILD the field should include all of the second and third molars and their periapical areas, bone distal to the third molar, and the distal of the first molar
Mandibular Molar Periapical: Mandibular Molar Projections (right and left) LANDMARK the crown of the 2nd molar should be centered on the bite block. The sensor should be placed as close to the lingual alveolar ridge as practical
Mandibular Molar Periapical: Mandibular Molar Projections (right and left) SENSOR size #2 sensor is placed in the horizontal position
Premolar Horizontal Interproximal (bitewing): Premolar Projections (left and right) LANDMARK the mesial edge of the sensor is aligned with the mesial surface of the mandibular canine. The inferior edge of the sensor is placed in the floor of the mouth under the tongue ALTERNATIVE:
Premolar Horizontal Interproximal (bitewing): Premolar Projections (left and right) IMAGE FEILD first premolar, second premolar and distal of the canine
Premolar Horizontal Interproximal (bitewing): Premolar Projections (left and right) SENSOR size #2 sensor is placed in the horizontal plane
Premolar Horizontal Interproximal (bitewing): Premolar Projections (left and right) LANDMARK ALTERNATIVE sensor between the tongue and the teeth, place the mesial edge of the sensor directly lingual to the mandibular central incisors
Molar Horizontal Interproximal (bitewings): Molar Projections right and left LANDMARK distal edge of the sensor is placed posterior to the distal surface of the most posterior clinically erupted tooth
Molar Horizontal Interproximal (bitewings): Molar Projections right and left IMAGE FEILD include the distal surfaces of the most posterior clinically erupted molars and an unobstructed view of the proximal surfaces of these teeth
Molar Horizontal Interproximal (bitewings): Molar Projections right and left SENSOR size #2 sensor is placed in the horizontal position
Anterior Maxillary: Maxillary Cross-sectional Occlusal Projection HEAD POSITION midsagittal plane is vertical and ala-tragus line is parallel with the floor
Anterior Maxillary: Maxillary Cross-sectional Occlusal Projection SENSORY PLACEMENT centered on the midsagittal plane and placed as far posterior as practical
Anterior Maxillary: Maxillary Cross-sectional Occlusal Projection CENTRAL RAY POINT OF ENTRY Point of entry being the bridge of the nose
Anterior Maxillary: Maxillary Cross-sectional Occlusal Projection DEGREES vertical angel of the central ray is +60 to +65 degrees
Anterior Mandibular: Mandibular Anterior Occlusal Projection HEAD POSITION midsagittal plane is vertical and ala tragus line is 45 degrees to the floor
Anterior Mandibular: Mandibular Anterior Occlusal Projection SENSORY PLACEMENT centered on the midsagittal plane and placed as far posterior as practical
Anterior Mandibular: Mandibular Anterior Occlusal Projection CENTRAL RAY POINT OF ENTRY Point of entry being the tip of the chin
Anterior Mandibular: Mandibular Anterior Occlusal Projection DEGREES vertical angel of the central ray is -10 (making an overall -55 degree angle between the sensor plane and the central ray)
Anterior Mandibular: Mandibular Anterior Occlusal Projection IMAGE FEILD? include an oblique view of the mandibular anterior teeth and the floor of the mouth
Cross-sectional Mandibular: Mandibular Cross-sectional Occlusal Projection HEAD POSITION the midsagittal plane is vertical and the head is tipped backwards with the chin elevated
Cross-sectional Mandibular: Mandibular Cross-sectional Occlusal Projection SENSORY PLACEMENT centered on the midsagittal plane and placed as far posterior as practical
Cross-sectional Mandibular: Mandibular Cross-sectional Occlusal Projection CENTRAL RAY POINT OF ENTRY The point of entry being the center of the floor of the mouth
Cross-sectional Mandibular: Mandibular Cross-sectional Occlusal Projection DEGREES vertical angle of the central ray is -90 degrees to the plane of the sensor
Cross-sectional Mandibular: Mandibular Cross-sectional Occlusal Projection IMAGE FEILD include a cross sectional view of the entire mandible and floor of the mouth
what is horizontal angulation for a pit fall? overlapping contacts
what are the X-ray film composition? base layer, Emulsion layer, overcoat
what is the base layer in X-ray film composition? it is in the center and the thickest layer Purpose is to support emulsion Uniformly translucent Blue tint improves viewing details
what is the base layer in X-ray film composition made of? Polyester polyethylene terephthalate
what is the Emulsion layer in X-ray film composition? present on both sides of the film purpose of suspend silver halide crystals (Br, Cl-) and absorbs processing chemicals to keep chemicals in contact with silver halide crystals
Why do we use tabular silver halide crystals over globular? Sharp edges, Greater surface areas in the crystal Most x-ray films use this, more sensitive to x-ray photons and requires less exposure to create a x-ray image
What is the overcoat layer in X-ray film composition? protective layer, An additional layer of gelatin vehicle to protect the emulsion from damage, harder gelatin so protect the emulsion and silver halide crystals so it can be held
what are the two types of X-ray films? direct exposure and indirect exposure
what are direct exposure x-ray films? Exposed by X-ray photons directly and can be used intraoraly and extraoraly. Dentistry is the only place this is used in the body
what are Indirect exposure (screen) film x-ray film? Exposed by visible light- very little by x-ray photons, requires an intensifying screen, extra oral techniques only
What does the intraoral film packet have that is unique from extraoral Double emulsion- layer of gelatin and silver halide crystals to make it sensitive to x-ray photons Moisture resistant packet
what are the components of a dental film packet? outer wrapper: consists of moisture resistant plastic lead foil: prevents scatter radiation black paper wrapper to keep light out X-ray film
what is the 0 size dental film used for? pediatric patients
what is the 1 size dental film used for? anterior periapicals
what is the 2 size dental film used for? posterior periapical and bitewing
what is the 3 size dental film used for? long bitewing (military) replaced the two bitewing system so the military could save time
What is the 4 size dental film used for? occlusal
Characteristic (H&D) Curve what does steep and flat mean? steep: higher the contrast flatter: lower the contrast
high contrast has what kind of latitude? low latitude because it is easier to mess up
low contrast has what kind of latitude? high latitude because it is harder to mess up
what is Resolution ability of radiograph to record separate structures see individual lines
what is Sharpness ability of radiograph to define an edge between densities not fuzzy but really sharp
how are x-rays created on film? X-ray photon hits bromine atom, ionizes and shoots of electrons electrons attracted to latent image site because of its positive charge negative charge builds at latent image site and silver is attracted silver grabs electron and becomes silver atom
what are the five steps in film processing? Immerge film in DEVELOPER RINSE film in water Immerse film in FIXER WASH film in water bath DRY film
Emulsion changes during processing o When it is fully developed the crystals that were exposed to x-ray photons will become grains of silver and the other crystals are not exposed and nothing is happened to them and they are removed by fixation
what is the purpose of developing solution? Softens and swells the emulsion so chemical can get around silver halide crystals Reduces all Ag+ in exposed crystals to metallic Ag grains but undeveloped Ag+ are not changed
what are the components of the developing solution? developer, activator, preservative, restrainer, solvent (Don't Accuse Pops Rat Sugar)
What does the developer do and what is in it for developing solution Phenidone and Hydroquinone Converts exposed crystals into metallic Ag grains
what does the activator do and what is in it for developing solution sodium bicarbonate Maintains alkaline pH and causes gelatin to swell
what does the preservative do and what is it made of for developing solution? sodium sulfite Protects developers from oxidation and prolongs useful life
what does the restrainer do and what is it made of for developing solution? Potassium bromide and Benzotriazole Restrains development of unexposed crystals, stops the reaction
what does the solvent do and what is it made of for developing solution? water Maintains other components in suspension so they can be soaked up by the swollen gel
what is the purpose of fixing solution? Dissolves and removes underdeveloped Ag halide crystals from emulsion hardens and shrinks emulsion
what are the components of fixing solution? Clearing (fixing) agent, acidifier, Preservative, Hardener, Solvent (Cool, Agents, Peek, Haphazard, Sometimes)
what does the clearing (fixing) agent do and what is it made of for fixing solution? Ammonium thiosulfate Dissolves/removes underdeveloped Ag halide crystals
What does the acidifier do and what is it made of for fixing solution? Acetic acid Maintains acidic pH and inactivates any carryover developing solution
What does the preservative do and what is it made of for fixing solution? Ammonium sulfite Prevents oxidation of thiosulfate and film staining from oxidized developer
what does the hardener do and what is it made of for fixing solution? Aluminum sulfate Shrinks and hardens the gelatin layer, shortens the drying time
how do you make your dark room safe using a red bulb? Can’t have a bulb that is greater than 15 watts and must be least 4 feet away usually safe for about 5 minutes
how much time should film spend in the developer for manual processing? 5 minutes
how much time should film spend in the fixing solution for manual processing? 10 minutes
how much time should film spend in the washing solution for manual processing 20 minutes
what are the causes of the film being too light? Developing time too short Developing solution too cold Developing solution depleted Excessive fixation
What are the causes of the film being too dark? Developing time too long Developing solution too hot Developing solution concentrated Inadequate fixation Light leaks/ safelight problems
what is the solution temperature for a manual processor? 68 degrees F or 20 degrees C
what is the solution temperature for an automatic processor? 82 degrees F or 28 degrees C
what is the penny test? used to test darkroom light leakage Leave a penny on the exposed film from the double-film pack on the working surface usually about 5 minutes if processed radiograph shows penny, the film is being fogged by inappropriate safe-lighting conditions
what is the reference film and step wedge? Check processing solutions Provide accurate monitoring of day to day processing conditions Every morning exposure a film until you have 20 films and check the density and choose the middle as a reference
what does a panoramic image do? extra oral radiographic projection which produces an image of a curved 3D layer
what are the magnification factors for panoramic x-rays? If you go forward you will minimize the anatomic structure If you go back you will magnify the anatomic structure (especially horizontal layer)
In a pano, where are the lingual and the buccal projected? lingual projected higher buccal projected lower
what happens in a pano image if the patient is too far forward? too far forward, teeth too narrow
what happens in a pano image if the patient is too far back? teeth are too fat (especially incisors)
what happens in a pano image if the patient's chin is too low? jack-o-latern smile The “smile” line created by the interocclusal gap is exaggerated
what happens in a pano image if the patient's chin is too high? Flat curved or frown curve; hard palate superimposed over apices of maxillary teeth Frown instead of smile
what happens in a pano image if the patient is rotated or twisted? Teeth on one side wider with overlapping contacts; ramus on one side is much wider and condyles differ in size closer to the film is minimized further away from film is magnified
what is a double image in a pano? pair of real images formed by an object lying within a zone that is intercepted twice by the beam
what is a ghost image in a pano? a high attenuation object (white that absorbs more x-ray photon) is located between the x-ray source and the center of rotation
what are the characteristics of the ghost image? Same morphology as the real image Appear on the opposite size Higher and more blurred Unlike double images, ghost retain the same orientation with respect to the real image
what are the inches for standard skull projection? 40 inches
what are the inches for Cephalometric projections? 60 inches
what is the Cantomeatal line for landmark? Central point of external auditory canal to outer canthus of eye
what is the ala-tragus line for landmark? Fleshy part of the ear to the middle of the nose
what is the lateral cephalometric projection position? Beam is directed at the center of the head at about the level of the nose, left side towards image receptor
What is the Posteroanterior (PA) projection position? patient faces the plate looking forward in natural head position, x-ray tube head behind patient so that the mouth is in focus
what is the Submentovertex: SMV projection position? X-ray source comes at the chin, head tilted back towards the plate, patient facing away from the plate
what is the modified submentovertex projection see? jug handles or zygomatic bone
what is the waters projection position? patient faces plate, Tip their head so chin closer to imaging plate than their nose or forehead, Head looks round and primary purpose is to look at what is going on in the sinuses
what is the Reverse-Towne projection position? patient faces plate, Forehead is closest to plate, closer than the forehead and chin, open mouth technique
what is the Mandibular oblique projection position? patient holds film to cheek
what is an important factor to remember for panoramic images? Lingual objects, being further from imaging surface, will be magnified and less sharp
what does SLOB mean? same, lingual opposite, buccal
In order to verify where the location of an object is you need... at least two images
ALARA Principle As Low As Reasonable Achievable
what is unique about Computed Tomography (CT)? whole body scan, uses X-rays but does not use film
what is the dense metal Hounsfield Unit? +3,000 HU
what is the cortical bone Hounsfield Unit? +1,000 HU
what is the water Hounsfield Unit? 0
what is the air Hounsfield unit -1,000 HU
what is bad about Cone Beam Volumetric Tomography (CBVT or CBCT)? poor soft tissue contrast
what is the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) image based on? Images based on H+ concentration of tissues bone does not give a signal
T1 weighted images in MRI are fat weighted images
T2 weighted images in MRI are water weighted images
what studies are in nuclear medicine? SPECT, PET, scintigraphy
what does nuclear medicine use? gamma radiation
what does MRI use Radiowaves
what does Sonography use? radiowaves
a piezoelectric crystal is associated with... ultrasonography
a Hounsfield unit are used in what type of imaging? computer tomography
at Baylor a typical full mouth radiographic survey includes 15 periapical and 4 bitewings
which radiographic projections is the mouth typically wide open? Towne's
the top of the head is placed closest to the film cassette when making... sunmentovertex
the exposure time for intraoral digital radiographs is usually about how much less than techniques using D-speed film 80%
T1 and T2 images are associated with... MRI
linear and complex motion are terms associated with... conventional tomography
a wide tomographic angle will result in a ___ image layer thin
which chemical agents are responsible for changing exposed silver halide crystals into metallic silver phenidone and hydroquinone
the ___ safelight filter which is red in color is recommended for use in darkrooms when processing both intraoral and extra oral radiographic film GBX-2
panoramic radiography units create an image layer similar in shape to the patients jaw, what is the image layer called? focal trough
fixer solution contains the preservative sodium sulfite, how does it function prevents oxidation of the thiosulfate clearing agent it prevents oxidized developer solution from staining the film
the activator int he developing solution serves to maintain the alkaline pH and makes the gelatin swell to increase developer
which of the following uses radiation source inside the body nuclear medicine
silver halide crystals are found in what layer? emulsion layer of radiographic film
What is the fastest speed of dental film available F Speed
which of the following imaging techniques typically provides the best resolution for of soft tissue MRI
the patient is positioned in the Frankfurt plane parallel to the floor when making the following image lateral and straight PA
for dental purposes, CT is typically acquired in the... axial
which ions are able to move about within the silver halide crystals and are important in latent image formation interstitial silver
Created by: Chobchi