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RT 244 ch 33,34

Radio-biology chapters 33,34

What are the 2 periods associated with acute radiation sickness? Prodromal and Latent
Describe the Prodromal period: 1.occurs within mins/hours 2.over 100 rads 3.Symptoms:nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and a reduction in the white cells
Describe the Latent period: 1.after prodromal period 2.only last hours if in excess of 5000 rads 3.can last up to weeks if between 100-500 rads 4.feeling of well being
Consider the latent period, what is a common mistake associated with this period? Sometimes mistaken as early recovery from a moderate radiation dose
What syndromes are involved in the acute radiation sickness? Hematologic death, Gastrointestinal death, Central Nervous System death
Describe Hematologic death 1.200-1000 rads 2.can recover 3.symptoms:possible vomiting,mild diarrhea,malaise,lethargy,fever,reduction in white and red cells and platelets
Describe Gastrointestinal death 1.1000-5000 rads 2.certain death between 4-10days 3.symptoms:nausea,vomiting,diarrhea,anorexia,lethargy,followed by severe diarrhea 4.destroys intestinal lining
Describe Central Nervous System death 1.in excess of 5000 rads 2.certain death within 3 days 3.symptoms:more severe prodromal period symptoms,disoriented,loses muscle coordination,difficulty in breathing,seizures,loss of equilibrium,lethargy,lapse into coma and die
What is the most devastating human response to radiation exposure? death
What is mean survival time (MST)? the average time between exposure and death
What form of cancer was most common with uranium and radium miners? Lung cancer because of high levels of radon gas
Identify the tissues first affected by radiation skin,gonads,and bone marrow
What are the 2 most radiosensitive cells in the body? spermatogonia and lymphocytes
The cells of what layer of skin are the most sensitive? The lowest level's basel cells because they are stem cells
What is the goal of radiation therapy? to kill tumor cells and cause the least amount of damage to healthy tissue
What is erythema? a sunburn-like reddening of the skin
What is desquamation? ulceration and denudation of the skin
Which bone marrow cell type will be most severely depressed after irradiation? lymphocytes
What is epilation and the dose required to cause it? 1.loss of hair 2.temporary at 300 rads 3.permanent at 700 rads
What is SED50? dose of ionizing radiation required to affect 50% of persons irradiated using 500 rads
What doses causes permanent and temporary sterility in the testicles? testicle dose of 500 rads cause permanent while 200 rads causes transient or temporary sterility
What is lethal dose? dose that causes death
What does LD 50/60 mean? dose of radiation expected to cause death within 60 days to 50% of those exposed at 350 rads
What minimum ovarian dose caused permanent and temporary sterility? ovarian dose of 500 rads is permanent while 200 rads is temporary
Chromosomal aberrations represent the severest damage when the hit is taken by what? DNA
The time frame of radiation delivered for early effects are? high dose over short period
The time frame of radiation delivered for late effects are? low dose over a long period
What is the key role of lymphocytes? plays an active role in providing immunity for the body by producing antibodies
What is the most radiosensitive phase in male gametes? spermatogonia
What is the most radiosensitive phase in female gametes? the oocyte in the mature follicle
What is the study called that proved their is an overall relative risk for leukemia of approx 1.5 from diagnostic irradiation in utero? Oxford survey by Alice Stewart in Great Britian
What does it mean by the severity of response is dose related? the higher the dose the more severe the response
What is the term for an orderly map of all chromosomes? Karotype
When is it most appropriate to perform epidemiologic studies? When the number effected is small in a large population
What chromosomal aberration is most difficult to detect scientifically? reciprocal translocation because it needs a karyotype for analysis
If you knew several dose levels, what model would you use to estimate risk for late effects? absolute
How do you compute relative risk? Relative = observed/expected
How do you compute excess risk? Excess = observed - expected
Define radiodermatitis 1.non-malignant 2.calloused, weathered skin 3.tight, brittle enough to crack
Describe H.J. Mueller's research 1.1927 2.drosophila fruit fly 3.radiation does not alter the quality of mutations but increases the frequency of those mutations observed
Why was the contrast media Thorotrast discontinued from use for angiography? it caused liver cancer and other carcinomas after a latent period of approx 15 to 20 years
Describe the Law of Bergonie and Tribondeau radiosensitivity of living tissue varies with maturation and metabolism
Describe Russell's research 1.1946 2.mice 3.a dose rate effect does exist 4.doubling dose concept was developed
What is the worst case estimate for radiation induced life-span shortening in days/rads? 10 days/1 rad
What is the most commonly accepted estimate for radiation induced life-span shortening in days/rads? 1 day/ 1 rad
What trimester of pregnancy is the most radiosensitive? 1st trimester
What does the hemopoietic system consist of? bone marrow, circulating blood, and lymphoid tissue
What is Cytogenetics? the study of the genetics of cells, particulary cell chromosome
What are the principle late effects? radiation induced malignancies and genetic effects
What are some other late effects? life span shortening and effects on local tissue
Is chromosome aberrations an early or late effect? it can be both early or late
Who had the chance of developing radiation induced cataracts? past cyclotron physicists
What are the three types of risk estimates? 1.relative (ratio) 2.absolute (know 2 or more doses) 3.excess (number)
Death from acute radiation exposure follows what type of dose-response relationship? nonlinear, threshold
What cells of the hemopoietic system arise from pluripotential stem cells? Lymphocytes,thrombocytes,erythrocytes,and granulocytes
The normal human karyotype consists of what? 23 chromosome pairs
Which type of cancer has not been demonstrated in humans after irradiation? colon
Created by: Chrslarsen