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Chapter 4 Quiz

Essentials of Radiation Biology and Protection 2nd Edition Chapter 4

QuestionAnswer
Radiation sickness, known as _____, is a serious illness that occurs when the entire body receives a high dose of radiation, usually over a short period of time. Acute Radiation Syndrome
in order for the total body radiation syndrome to be applicable, radiation exposure must happen under the following conditions An organ must have been exposed acutely, there must be exposure of the total body area, External penetrating sources
The lethal dose required to kill 50% of the population in 30 days is the definition of: LD 50/30
The acute radiation syndrome includes the following: Bone Marrow Syndrome, Gastrointestinal Syndrome, Centeral Nervous Syndrome
Response stages with the acute radiation syndrome include the following: Prodromal Stage, Latent Stage, Manifest Stage, Recovery Stage
For the acute radiation syndrome, in the 100-1,000 R range, death is mostly the result of damage to the: Hemopoietic
For the acute radiation syndrome, in the 600-10,000 R range, death is mostly the result of damage to the: Grastrointestinal
For the acute radiation syndrome, at dose greater than 10,000 R, death is mostly the result of damage to the: Central Nervous
In the _____stage, the person experiences nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Prodomal
In the _____ stage the person appears to be symptom-free. latent
In the _____ stage, the person becomes noticeably ill and shows signs and symptoms of the specific syndrome reflecting the organ system which is damaged. manifest
The shrinking of tissues or organs due to irradiation is termed: Atrophy
Redness and swelling at the site of radiation exposure is termed: Inflammation
The peeling off of skin caused by irradiation is termed: Desquamation
Abnormal redness of skin due to irradiation is termed: Erythema
The correct order of layers of skin, from outermost to innermost: Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous
The skin erythema dose necessary to affect 50% of the people irradiated is termed: SED50
The SED50 is estimated to be approximately: 600
Epilation or alopecia are terms for: Hair Loss
The formation of cataracts caused by radiation is termed: Radiation Cataractogenesis
Radiation induced cataracts follow a threshold, nonlinear dose-response curve with the threshold thought to be approximately: 200
Radiation induced cataracts have an average latent period of approximately: 15
Doses as low as _____ have caused observable responses to human gonads. 10
The reproductive cells of the female are termed: Oogonia
The reproductive cells of the male are termed: Spermatogonia
Depletion of mature sperm in the male due to irradiation is termed: Maturation depletion
An acute dose to male and female gonads of approximately _____ will cause permanent sterility. 500-600
Regarding the bone marrow cells, what is the correct order from least sensitive to most sensitive? Megakaryocytes, Myelocytes, Erythroblasts
Following radiation exposure to the bone marrow, what are the first cells to be reduced? Red Blood Cells
The main effect on the male gonads is damage to and reduction in the number of the: Spermatogonia
The main effect on the female gonads is damage to the: Mature Follicles
It takes a minimum whole-body dose of approximately ____ to cause hematologic depression. 25
Structural changes to the chromosome that occur after irradiation are termed: Aberrations, Lesions, Anomalies
Radiation-induced chromosomal damage that occurs before DNA synthesis is known as: Chromosomal Aberration
Radiation-induced chromosomal damage that occurs after DNA synthesis is known as: Chromatid Aberration
What is a chromosome map used for cytogenetic analysis of chromosomes? Karyotype
Which acute radiation syndrome has an average survival time that is independent of dose? Gastrointestional
What would be considered an early response to irradiation? Breast Cancer
What are some acute local tissue effects of radiation exposure? Cataracts
Death from a single dose of whole body irradiation primarily involves damage to the: Bone Marrow
What is the principal response of the blood caused by radiation exposure? Decrease in cell number
Created by: Dallas1856