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Psycho Personality


Traits Relatively stable patterns of thought, feeling or behavior that characterise and individual
States They are temporary patterns of thought, feeling or behaviour
Early Trait Taxonomies Allport & Odbert (1936) listed 18,000 words that can be used to describe people.
Defining personality Individuality and distinctiveness, structure and organisation, how personality develops and consistent patterns
Emotional stability (neuroticism) People who score high on this factor are difficult to unbalance. They have a stable mood and are relaxed, and approach stressful events with calmness. People who score low in the factor tend to experience more anxiety, anger, frustration, shame and guilt.
Extraversion People who score high on extraversion like to be in the company of others. They are also more assertive, energetic and talkative compared to people who score low. They love excitement and are optimistic and cheerful in nature.
Conscientousness Conscientious people are perseverant, ambitious, moral and reliable. A conscious person needs to be well organised and goal orientated; he or she views life as a collection of tasks that need to be accomplished.
Agreeableness This factor reflects how one deals with goals and challenges of the people around them.People who score high in this factor tend to be cooperative, helpful and friendly. They are able to look at a situation from other perspectives.
Openness to Experience People who score high on this factor are curious, imaginative and flexible. They are interested in many different things and tend to question specific rules and regulations. They are also more likely to embrace unconventual ideas.
Cattels 16 personality factors He used factor analysis to identify 16 basic personality traits (rather than 5)His '16 personality factors text measure traits such as interpersonal warmth, intelligence, impulsivity and discipline.
Self-report data Costa & McCrae (1992)-neuroticism, extraversion, openness personality inventory revised. Asked people to rate there agreement with proposed statements eg.'most people like me'
Informant data Data about a person derived from others who know the person well. eg teachers, paremt, friend. Self report and informant ratings of big five and been found, across studies, to generally agree
Do traits exist? The consistency controversy Assumption-traits are stable and enduring. Mischel (1968) argued instead for situationalism traits are not consistent across situations therefore traits are not predicted behaviour
Interactionalism Trait-relevant behaviour may emerge in some situations, but not others.
Genetics and personality Twin method-compares the degree of similarity between twins. Monozygotic (MZ) twins and dizygotic (DZ) twins
Result of twin studies Loehlin &Nicholas (1976) Heredity, enviroment and personality: study of 850 sets of twins. Resemblance of identical twin pairs:typical correlations within pairs.
Temperament Biological, inborn dimension of personality; appears early, remains stable
Research on temperamant (1) Inhibited and unhibited childre (Kagan 1994, 2003)20% high-ractive (over aroused inhibited) 40% low-reactive (under- aroused unhibited)
Research on tempermant (2) Which regions of the brain contribute to inhibited tendaencies
Research on temperament (3) Schwartx et al. (2003)-examined a group of young adults (inhibited vs uninhibited). Reactions to familiar faces vs novel faces. Measurement technique-brain imaging (fMRI)
Traits and Enviroment Personality measures taken from:adopted children and adoptive siblings.
Contributions of the trait approach Systematic description of personality, it reduces large numbers of individual differences to manageable size, understanding of how person and situation shapes behaviour, agreement on BIG FIVE model-allows researchers to share data
Origins of psychoanalytic thought Brutish nature of humans
Mind It is in 3 parts: conscious, precocious and unconscious
Id Operates to the pleasure principle
Ego(executive) reality principle-rational
Superego Morality principle(has a sense of right and wrong)
Id, Ego, Superego Interaction of all 3 makes us who we are
Types of anxiety objective, neurotic, moral
Defence mechanism Repression, denial, projection, displaced, reaction formation
Development of personality series of stages-each stage involves a conflict. Adult personality depends on how child resolves conflicts.
Theory of infantile sexuality erogenous zones-become focus of sexual pleasure and frustration. Failure to resolve conflict leads to fixation
Psychosexual stages Oral stage-0 to 18 months, anal stage-18 months to 3 years, Phallic stage-3 to 5 years, latency stage- 6 years to puberty, genital stage-puberty to adulthood
Psychic determimination nothing happens by chance (motivated unconscious)
Parapraxis (Freudian slip) A minor error in speech or action, not random, fulfillment of unconscious wishes eg to close the meeting
Nature of Freud's evidence Interpretation of dreams, dreams as 'royal road to the unconscious'manifest content vs. latent content. Ego uses symbols to represent meaning
Concerns about psychodynamic evidence The problem of interpretion and empirical evidnce for Freudian concepts is mixed
Repression The essence of repression lies simply in turning something away and keeping it at a distance, from the conscious
Levinger and Clark (1961) Participants show negatively charged words eg quarrel, anger, fear and neutral words eg window, cow, tree
Ego psychology: hierachy or defence mechanism Coping patterns (or adaptive styles) canbe classified: humour, suppression, altruism repression, reaction formation projection, hypochondria, emotional outburst denial, disortion
Contributions of the psychodynamic approach Theory remains controversial, opinions on theory differ dramatically, impressice in scope and influence, massive impact on pscyhology and beyond, No shortage of general criticisms, also specific criticisms of theory
Humanistic view of nature Positive view of humans, innate drives are positive, importance of developing self (if not, psychopathology can result), Psychological health results from meeting unique potential
Huanistic approach to presonality Emphasise on free will, innate tendancies toward growth,and the attempt to find meaning in existence. Focuse on phenomenology-unique, first-person, conscious experience of individuals
Motivation Actualizing tendency-single positive force, drive-reducing and drive-increasing.
The self (self-concept) Individuals overall perceptions of their abilities, behaviour and personality. Primary conscious-not where they are born
Self-actualizing tendency Development of self
Criticism of Rogers theory Source of data is not reliable or valid. Overly optimistic and simplified view of human nature, exceptions to theory, too little attention to unconscious, Rogerian concepts are broad and vague eg 'organismic experience'
Positive States A researcher movement that emphasises factors that make people psychologically healthy, happy , or able to cope well with their life circumstances. Focus on the the positive subject of experiences
Positive Traits Cluster 1-wisdom and knowledge Cluster 2- Courage Cluster 3-Humanitarian concerns Cluster 4- Justice Cluster 5- temperance Cluster 6- Transcendence (Peterson and Seligmans 24 character traits
Contributions of the humanistic approach Vaguely defined concepts, unporoven-non-scientific, self has crucial role in shaping behaviour, focus on good and admirable
Social–cognitive approach Behavioural approach AND Cognitive approach, combined. interaction of thinking human with social environment
Bandura (1986) personal fators, enviromental factors, behavioural factors
Control People desire control over their circumstances. People benefit from such control. Field experiments (e.g. Langer & Rodin, 1976; Rodin & Langer, 1977)
Attributions used to explain behaviour Successes > dispositional attributions e.g. “I did well because I’m smart” Failures > situational attributions e.g. “the economy was bad”
Attributional style the way a person typically explains the things that happen in his or her life
Internal “I did not study enough”
External "The teacher misled the class on what to study”
Global “I am generally not a knowledgeable person”
Specific “I am not knowledgeable on this subject”
Stable “No matter what, I will usually fail on tests”
Unstable “With some extra effort, I could pass the next test”
Self-control –the ability to pursue a goal while adequately managing internal conflicts about it or to delay pursuing a goal because of other considerations or constraints
Mischel, Shoda & Rodriguez, 1992 Study of self control within children, if they didnt eat marshmallow in 15 minutes they would get two marshmallows
Contributions of Social–cognitive approach strong scientific base, increased understanding of how processes within person interact with situation, ability to translate insights from other approaches into cognitive-behavioural concepts Psychodynamic
Factors related to personality differences Biological, Psychological and Environmental
Biological Genetic bases for personality traits (behaviour genetics, Individual differences in cortical arousal –introversion vs. extraversion (Eysenck’strait approach)and Biological bases for temperament
Psychological Psychodynamic processes involving impulse, unconscious conflicts. Processes involved in self-concept. Personality dispositions to think, act and feel in particular ways , Cognitive learning variables that interact with factors
Environmental Early relationship experience. Environmental factors that support or impede self-actualisation (humanistic theories. Past social learning and current environmental factors that interact with social cognitive person variables (social-cognitive theories)
Created by: mccartneyrc