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Learning- psych 101

learning Changes in behavior or other psychological processes resulting from experience or practice
Associative Learning * * Changes that result from the formation of new associations between ideas or between situations and actions * Classical Conditioning * Operant Conditioning
Classical Conditioning New connection between stimulus and response
Other examples of Classical Conditioning * Conditioning of a doll * US= Loud noise * UR= Fear response * CS = Doll
Extinction of a conditioned Response * Repeated presentation of the CS without the US leads to a breaking of the relationship * CS=(no response)
Generalization Spread of the effects of conditioning to objects similar to the CS.
Discrimination Procedure Particular CS is paired with US Other potential CS’s NOT paired with US Result: Response occurs only when particular CS is presented
Important Characteristics of classical conditioning Responses are generally glandular secretions or other responses controlled by the autonomic nervous system Stimulus occurs before response Little or no conscious control
Associations We learn that two things go together Touching hot stove– being burned Feeling hungry– go to McDonald’s Concept of associative chains as explaining complex knowledge
Schemas Mental representations that summarize what we know
Operant Conditioning Skinner and his basic principle: Behaviors are affected by their consequences
Basic Paradigm: Skinner Box Rat in Box Lever in Box Food Dispenser Grid on Floor
Positive Reinforcement Behavior->Introduction of something favorable (pleasant) The behavior becomes stronger. Studying Hard for Exam leads to high grade Expressing a certain opinion leads to acceptance into a group
Negative Reinforcement Behavior-> Removal of something unfavorable (unpleasant) The behavior becomes stronger. Studying leads to removal of threat of Probation.
Extinction Behavior -> No presentation or withholding of something pleasant, behavior becomes weaker. Good work does not lead to any praise
Punishment Behavior -> introduction of something unfavorable (unpleasant) Weakens behavior BUT perhaps only as long as the threat of punishment continues
Important Characteristics of operant conditioning Response occurs before the stimulus that affects it Responses are those that involve skeletal muscles Generally responses over which we have voluntary control
Observational Learning Bandura’s experiments 1.Observe Model 2.Placed in new situation 3.Behavior copies model
Characteristics of observational learning model not punished, identification with model
Garcia’s Experiments Procedure: Present new food AND flashing light Cause sickness to stomach. Result: Animal learns to avoid food, but not flashing light Cause shocks to be given. Result: Animal learns to avoid flashing light, but not food
Neurotransmitter Buildup Change in the sending neuron
Long-term potentiation Change in receiving neuron
Formation of new synapses Dendritic growth
Perception The construction of mental representations based on sensory information
Memory The retention of mental representations
Thinking Use of mental representations to solve problems, create something new, or achieve some other goal. Sometimes we talk about manipulation of information
Analogical Representation Something that resembles at least some of the features of the thing or quality being represented. An example is a visual image
Symbolic Representation A symbol is arbitrary in its relationship to what is represented. E.g. language--- “Friendship”
Propositions A representation that involves some assertion about the world
Concepts Representations that can stand for an entire class of objects, ideas, or events “Intelligent people” “Prejudice” “Choral Concerts” Important for being able to deal with new experiences
Reasoning using logic to solve problems
Deductive Reasoning Going from a set of principles to a particular conclusion— “All college students are intelligent” “Wanda is not intelligent” “Wanda is not a college student”
Inductive Reasoning Going from a specific instance or set of instances to a more general principle “Joe is a nice person and has red hair” “Most red-haired persons are nice”
Algorithm A thought process that will guaranty an answer
Heuristic A procedure that increases the chances of an answer, but does not guaranty an answer
Availability Try to think of instances of something occurring and use that to make a conclusion.
Representativeness Assume that a particular instance is representative
Problem of Confirmation Bias We tend to look for confirming examples, not disconfirming ones
Memory Persistence of Information over time Involves coding, storage, and retrieval of information
Declarative information Knowing “that”, requires "effortful" processing
Procedural information Knowing "how to", may involve implicit learning
Coding (acquisition) We perceive and understand new information as a first start in the memory process. How this is done is critical
Storage Maintenance of information over time. Rehearsal or other forms of elaboration are critical– e.g. Maintenance rehearsal vs meaningful rehearsal
Interactive imagery creating image where all objects interact
Retrieval utilization of remembered information
Sensory Memory Rich but brief storage of recently experienced information
Visual Memory Detailed copy, large capacity, 1/4 second
Short-term or Working Memory What we are actively thinking about Linguistic Small capacity– 7 items or so Decays in 20 seconds or less without rehearsal Mental Scan of the items in memory
Long-Term or Permanent Memory Not necessarily active at the moment Semantic or Meaningful Large Capacity Immune to forgetting? But, perhaps retrieval failures are important Use of meaningful retrieval cues
Decay Information simply disappears without rehearsal
Interference New information interferes with old information E.g. telephone numbers
Retrieval Failure Cues are not available
Bartlett- War of the Ghosts Retelling of the story involves sharpening and leveling that depends upon background
Lashley Experiments localization question
Long-term Potentiation Learning experiences lead to more buildup of serotonin, increasing the efficiency of the synaptic action
Language Special set of speech symbols that can be easily manipulated to generate novel messages
Phonemes Basic units of speech; smallest unit that makes a difference
Morphemes Smallest unit of meaning e.g bicycle or -ed, made up of sets of phonemes
Creative or Productive Can create new utterances that represent something never done or thought before
Referential or Symbolic Items inside the head come to stand for items in the outside world.
Structured Grammatical rules determine how words can be arranged into new utterances
Meaningful Language exists on two levels- one is the actual string of words or symbols. The other is that underlying meaning “They are eating apples” Deep Structure vs. Surface Structure
Some Things Language Does Provides flexible symbols that can represent and express complex ideas, Provides ways of creating new ideas— New arrangements of existing symbols,Provides Mechanism for Self-Regulation
Whorf Hypothesis The structure of language that a person speaks determines how that person thinks
“Modified” Whorf Hypothesis Does the form of language expression in artificial devices affect thinking?
Developmental Psychology Changes throughout the life cycle Focus on childhood and infancy Cognitive and Social Changes
Types of Development Cognitive and Social
Nurture We are the products of our experiences. We start with a tabula rasa and experience “writes” on it.
Nature We are simply the product of our genetic inheritance. Development is the “unfolding” of what is already there.
Interactive View We are genetically programmed to do certain things, one of which is to learn. One version is that we are biologically prepared to exhibit certain characteristics, but their specific form is culturally determined
Infantalization We are born with relatively underdeveloped characteristics.
Long Period of Dependency Infantalization, Trade-off between being highly developed at birth and having great learning potential
Cognitive Development Jean Piaget Stages of Understanding- Each characterized by a way of “thinking” about the world schema for understanding Movement to a next stage is discrete
Sensorimotor Birth to roughly 2 World is what can be sensed here and now Primitive action schemas- child thinks of everything as the result of her/his actions- The world consists of things that can be reached, sucked on etc.
Pre-Operational Age 2 to 7 Object Permanence Can carry out basic cognitive operations; has trouble coordinating them Conservation problems Ego-Centrism
Concrete Operational Ages 7 to 11 Able to deal with thought processes involving concrete operations Some difficulty with abstract concepts Problem of “necessary truth”
Formal Operational Ages 11 and up Can deal with abstract concepts Logic problems E.g. “If A is true, then B is true” “B is not true” Is A true? Universe of the possible
Schema a framework for organizing information. E.g."politician" schema
Assimilation New information is interpreted in terms of a schema
Accommodation New information causes a modification of the schema
Metacognition Ability to monitor our thought processes; “Thinking about thinking”.
Lorenz Studies imprinting of ducks, concept of "critical period"
Harlow Study The “wire” and “cloth” mothers “Contact Comfort” Long-term effects of lack of contact comfort; Isolation
Socialization Learn how to become a member of a social group.
Socialization by parents Dimension of expectations- Demanding or Permissive Dimension of responsiveness- Responsive or not
Self- Concept A set of ideas about one’s distinctiveness.
Self Guides thoughts and behaviors Originally comes from attitudes and beliefs of others. Gradually becomes internalized
Erikson One 0-2 Trust vs. Mistrust Two 2-3 Autonomy vs. shame Three 3-6 Initiative vs. guilt Four 6-12 Competence vs. inferiority
Erikson (Continued) Five Adolescence Identify vs. Role Confusion Six Early Adult Intimacy vs. Isolation Seven Middle Age Productivity vs. Stagnation Eight Later Years Integrity vs. Despair
Kohlberg’s Moral Development: Pre-Conventional Level 1 Avoid Punishment Level 2 Gain Reward
Kohlberg: Conventional Morality: Social Relationships Level 3 Codes of Parents Level 4 Law and Order
Kohlberg: Post-Conventional Morality: Abstract Principles Level 5 Social Contract- Greatest Good Level 6 Social Justice
Intelligence Individual differences in the ability to use Cognitive Processes
Alfred Binet and Intelligence Testing Goal: Identifying children who would need help in school Procedure: Ask questions related to school work Result: After much activity, was able to get a test that would be a good predictor
Major Characteristic: Age Grading of Questions age of grading of questions, Mental age "grade" for the test. Chronological age= actual age in years IQ = MA/CA x 100
Nature of Intelligence Binet– One Factor Thurstone: Several Primary Abilities Verbal Comprehension Word Fluency Number Space Memory Perceptual Speed Reasoning Gardner- Multiple Intelligences (not unlike Thurstone)
Nature of Intelligence (continued) Sternberg 1. Analytical- Able to figure out answers to well-defined problems 2. Creative- Can adapt to new situations and create new ideas 3. Practical- Able to work well in real-life situations where things are often poorly defined
Origins of Intelligence Inheritance and Environment
Use and Abuse School placement U.S. Immigration Policies– 1924 laws Claims about the effects of race The importance of within group and between group differences
Created by: andyg41
Popular Psychology sets




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