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Key Terms

Essentials of Radiation Biology and Protection 2nd Edition Chapter 3

Bystander Effects The effect of radiation on cells that are adjacent to those directly affected by radiation
Deletion A chromosomal effect that causes a loss of genetic material
Dicentric A chromosome that has two centers or two centromeres
Division Delay Slow-down of cell division due to irradiation
Dose-Response Relationship Curve A graphical representation of observed effects(response) compared with radiation dose
Free Radical An atom that has an unpaired electron making it highly reactive. It is produced as a result of radiolysis of water
HeLa Letters that represent the first two letter of the patients first and last names in an experiment conducted by Puck using uterine cervix cells to produce cell cultures
Interphase Death Cell death occurring before mitosis
Linear Dose-Response Curve Graphical representation of relationship between radiation dose and observed response, in which any dose may have a potential effect, and there is a direct relationship between radiation dose and observed effect
Linear Quadratic Dose-Response Curve Graphical representation of relationship between radiation dose and observed response, in which the curve is linear or proportional at low doses, and becomes curvilinear at higher doses. This type of curve has not threshold
Linear Energy Transfer(LET) A measure of the rate at which energy is deposited from ionizing radiation to soft tissue
Mutation A structural change or transformation of a chromosome that can be transmitted to offspring
Nonthreshold Any dose received, regardless of size that will produce a response
Oxygen Effect Name given to cellular response to radiation when oxygen is present
Point Mutation A mutation that occurs as a result of a change to a single DNA base pair, created by one nucleotide being exchanged for another
Radiolysis Breakdown of water using radiation
Radiosensitivity The amount of reaction or response of a cell to radiation
Relative Biologic Effectiveness(RBE) A comparison of how effective types of radiation are compared with X- and gamma-rays
Ring Mutation of chromosome causing it to become ring-shaped
Sigmoid An S-shaped type of dose-response relationship
System A group of cell that perform a particular function
Threshold The point where a stimulus starts to produce an effect
Translocation Altering of a chromosome either by a portion of it transferring to another chromosome or to another section of the same chromosome
Created by: Dallas1856