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Chapter 2 Quiz

Essentials of Radiation Biology and Protection 2nd Edition

QuestionAnswer
What is defined as the combination of two or more tissues which are combined to perform specific functions? Organ
What assist in growth, construct new tissues, and repair injured or worn out cells? Proteins
What is considered to be the building blocks of proteins? Amino Acids
Which protein is found in all living cells, and act as organic catalyst? Enzymes
What stores energy, insulates our bodies from cold, assists with digestion, and helps to lubricate our joints? Lipids
What is the body's major source of cell energy? Carbohydrates
What contains carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and phosphorus, and are the largest known organic molecules? Nucleic Acids
What inorganic compounds maintain the osmotic pressure of the cell by maintaining the correct proportion of water in the cell? Sodium and Potassium
The cell membrane: Functions to separate the cell's interior from its exterior surroundings
The cytoplasm: Is where catabolism and anabolism occur in the cell
The centrosome and centrioles: Function to organize the spindle fibers during cell mitosis
The endoplasmic reticulum: Assists in channeling proteins and lipids into and out of the nucleus
The mitochondria: Assist in breaking down carbohydrates, fat, and proteins into energy
The golgi apparatus: are involved with cell secretions
Lysosomes: Assist in digesting old, worn-out cell parts, dead cells, bacteria and foreign materials
The Nucleus: Is the most vital cell organelle
The nuclear membrane: Has openings which allow substances to travel from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
The nucleolus: Contains ribosomes composed of RNA and protein
DNA: Passes genetic information from cell to cell, and ultimately from generation to generation
RNA: Assists with and controls protein synthesis
What is the linear thread of a cell nucleus? Chromosome
What is the basic unit of heredity which has a specific location on a chromosome? Gene
What is the mature male or female reproductive cell? Gamete
The number of chromosomes for humans is 46. This number is termed the _____ or 2n. Diploid
The number of chromosomes in the germ cells is referred to as the _____ or n number: Haploid
In humans, the somatic cell contains 46 chromosomes in the nucleus, of which 44 are _____ (nonsex chromosomes), and two are sex chromosomes Autosomes
The type of cell division involving somatic cells in which a parent cell divides to create two daughter cells the contain the same chromosome number and DNA content as the parent is termed: Mitosis
The nondividing cell is in the segment of the cell cycle known as ______, which is subdivided into G1, S, and G2: Interphase
The gap or growth phase between telophase and the start of DNA synthesis when the DNA is not replicating is termed: G1
The period of DNA synthesis or replication is termed: S-Phase
It is during mitosis that cells are most: Radiosensitive
The most radioresistant phase of the cell cycle is in late: S-phase
One of the usually paired and parallel strands of a duplicated chromosome joined by a single centromere is the definition of a: Chromatid
The point or region on a chromosome to which the spindle attaches during mitosis and meiosis is termed: Centromere
What is the correct sequence of stages during mitosis: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
The initial stage of mitosis and the mitotic division of meiosis characterized by the condensation of chromosomes consisting of two chromatids, disappearance of the nucleolus and nuclear membrane, and formation or mitotic spindle is termed: Prophase
The stage of mitosis, and meiosis in which the chromosomes become arranged in the equatorial plane of the spindle is termed: Metaphase
The stage of mitosis and meiosis in which the chromosomes move toward the poles of the spindle is termed: Anaphase
The final stage of mitosis and the second division of meiosis in which the spindle disappears and the nuclear envelope reforms around each set of chromosomes is termed: Telophase
The cellularprocess that results inthe numberof chromosomes in gamete-producing cells being reduced to one half and that involves a reduction division in which one of each pair of homologous chromosomes passes to each daughter cell and a mitotic division Meiosis
After DNA is replicated, cells utilize several other enzymes to _____ their work and correct mistakes from the replication process: Proofread
During meiosis, or reduction division: The cell divides twice in succession, but chromosomes are duplicated only one time
Created by: Dallas1856