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Psychology learning

learning

TermDefinition
Behaviourism Study of behavior with learning as the center piece
Habitution It describes learning an association between 2 stimuli (unlike conditioning) but describes the attenuation of a current response eg. humans eventually get used to constant loud noise
Sensitisation (or dihabituation) Not about the association between 2 stimuli but describes and increase in strength of response to a repeated stimulus eg. Humans-tap dripping(or water torture)
Sensitise or habituate Groves and Thomson (1970) said that both happen at the same time. If amount of arousal produced is high then sensitisation occurs before habituation and so the overall behavioral response is increased response to the stimulus
Classical Conditioning Association of 2 stimuli such that one stimulus comes to be associated with the response that causes another action.
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) They measure the salivary response to food and noticed that the salivary process happened before the presentation of food. He tested this idea directly with tones. They sound a tone every time the dog gets food. Dog begins to salivate to the tone, even w
Stimulus substitution The CR is similar to but weaker than UCR. This is a basic learning process that occurs across species. Its function is to alert organisms to an important upcoming event. If salivation can be conditioned, so might a whole lot of other bodily responses.
Acquisition Continued pouring UCS (food) with CS (tone) is usually necessary elicit a CR-a strong UCS may result in strong conditioning eve after only using on CS-UCS pairing
Extinction If CS (tone) is continually presented without UCS the strength of the CR reduces until it disappears
Spontaneous recovery After extinction, a rest period with no further learning trials usually results in recovery CR however it is much weaker
The principle of temporal contiguity For the most effective conditioning the CS much predict the onset of the UCS. Learning occurs most quickly when the CS (tone) appears first and is still present when the UCS (food) appears (forward pairing) If there is a delay between CS and UCS, it shoul
Generalistation A similar stimulus to the CS will also elicit a CR. The greater the similarity, the more likely it is that CR will occur
Discrimination A stimulus markedly different will not elicit a CR
High-order Conditioning Hungry dog get repeated tone-food pairings. Tone becomes CS with salvation as CR. Now show black square prior to tone (no food)Square eventually becomes a CS which can be elicit salivation on it's own. The whole chain of items associate with a response
Conditioned fear (Watson and Rayner (1920) 11 month old introduced to a rat. Paired showing him a rat with banging a steal bar with a hammer. After several rat-noise pairing, little albert cried when he saw rat by itself.
Exposure therapies Exposure to the stimulus (cs) without the UCS allowing extinction to occur
Flooding Intense exposure to trigger stimulus,anxiety at maximum level- no adverse consequences-problem is phobic has to stay in room
Systematic desensitisatuon Graduated exposure to the trigger stimulus-same idea but less likely that the patient will do a runner
Attraction Classical conditioning has also been linked to fetishism. Ralph McGuire got his trainees has a fetish of shoes
Aversion Advertising as it plays about and acts on bodily responses
Operant Conditioning learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior.
Thorndike's puzzle box Hungry cat in the box with food outside, the lever in the box can open the door. By chance it steps on the lever. The cat learns gradually that when he steps on lever he gets food-learned behavior not insight
Law of Effect In a given situation, a response followed by a satisfying consequence will become more likely to occur and a response followed by an annoying consequence will become less likely to occur
Basic Principle Behavior is shaped and maintained by it's consequences. Base on the study of the effect that patterns of rewards and costs made contingent on EMITTED responses (classical conditioning is based on ELICITED responses)
Operant A class of behavior on which a reinforcer is made contingent. Behaviour operate upon the environment to produce a change in the enviroment
Reinforcement Always increases (strengthen) responses rates, may be positive or negative. eg. getting a food pellet, removal of annoying noise ect
Punishment Punishment always decreases response rates, also may be positive or negative eg. getting and electric shock, having sweets taken away
Antecedent Stimuli which exists before the relevant behaviour
Behaviours They way the animal emits
Consequence Some effect that the environment then has upon the animal based upon it's earlier behaviour
Discriminative Stimuli Acts as a signal, in the presence of which the responses are emitted or suppressed. The discriminative stimulus acts as a signal that a particular behavior will be associated with particular consequence
Primary reinforcement Stimuli which are automatically valued by the organism as they satisfy a biological need-food, water, pleasure ect
Secondary reinforcement Stimuli that acquire reinforcing properties through their association with primary reinforces eg money, praise ect
Operant extinction Weakening and eventually disappearance of a behaviour that is no longer reinforced.
Resistant to Extinction Degree to which non-reinforced responses persist can vary greatly depending on how the response was initially acquired and level or reward/punishment. Immediate consequence to a behaviour is best especially for animal training.
Shaping Complex or unlikely behaviour pattern can be established by animals by a successive approximations to the desired response pattern
Chaining Conditioning several behaviours to happen in succession and be dependent on a prior response
Operant gerneralisation The response will ocur with other antecedents that are similar to the one with initially present during learning
Operant discrimination A response will be given to the learning antecedent but not one which is markedly different.
schedules of reinforcement Reinforces occur at different frequencies in real life and this determines the strength of reinforcement.
Continuous reinforcement Every response of the desired nature is reinforsed
Partial reinforcement Only some of the desired responses are reinforced
Avoidance Conditioning Some antecedent predicts the onset of the unpleasent stimulus allowing the animal to avoid it via an appropriate behavioral response.
Evolution Survival prospects enhanced by conditioning-prediction
Preparedness animals are hardwired to learn certain associations much better than other.
Garcia and Koeling (1966) Rats liking from a drinking tube, Simultaneously exposed to sweet water, light and buzzer. Then irradiated to cause nausea
Fear Even unconscious presentation of snakes, spiders and angry faces can be easily paired with an electric shock, flowers ect weaker conditioning
Instinctive drift Some institutional behaviours are too strong and simply 'override' learning
Latent learning Found that rats could learn cognitive maps with no rials with no reinforcer on 11th trial, rats performed the maze with thr same degree as those had already had 10 trials with food reinforcement
Expectancy-Rescorla (1968) Rats pressed bar for food and presented with tone and shock resulting in frezeing. Group in which tone only predicted shock 50% of the didnt freeze to later tones
Kamin blocking effect Rats get light and shock. Then get light, noise and shoorck. Havent learned noise is a predictor-this association has been blocked by the earlier light-shock association
Attentional models latent inhition=habituation to the CS presented on its own. Later when the CS is paired with UCA, the organism pays less attention to the CS and so conditioning is weakened
Latent inhibition Pe-exposure to a CS (light) causes a weakening of the association between the CS and a later UCS (shock)
observational learnig Bandura (1965) bobo doll. Children saw adult punch, kick and hit doll with mallet, Adult was either punished or praised. Children who saw punished adult had less agressive behaviour towards doll given an incentive to behave as the model did (latent)
Created by: mccartneyrc