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Psych Exam 3

vocab Ch 7 & 9

TermDefinition
Habituation Decrease in responding to a stimulus following multiple exposures EX: living next to train tracks
Classical Conditioning Stimulus A predicts the onset of stimulus B Through pairings of A & B, A acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally...
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Accidentally "discovered" classical conditioning Dog Saliva Experiment Won Nobel Prize
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Object or event that the organism biological reacts to
Unconditioned Response (UR) Natural response to the UCS No learning
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Object or event that originally is neutral, but acquires ability to predict the UCS through repeated pairings
Conditioned Response (CR) Learned reaction the organism develops in response to the CS
Acquisition 1 Development of a classically conditioned response Repeated pairings of the CS & UCS
Extinction Weakening of a classically conditioned response CS presented repeatedly without UCS Condition is weakened, not unlearned
Spontaneous Recovery The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
Stimulus Generalization Extension of responding to stimuli that resemble CS EX: all black dogs are scary
Stimulus Discrimination Ability to distinguish between CS & stimuli that are different from the UCS
John B. Watson "The Father of Behaviorism" built on Pavlov's work "Little Albert Experiment"
Taste Aversion The instinct to avoid poisonous/ harmful foods Goes against Blank Slate Theory
Prepared Fear The instinct to be afraid of/ fear things Goes against Blank Slate Theory
Operant Conditioning Learning in which the probability of a response is altered by its consequences
Edward Thorndike "Law of Effect" - 1903
Law of Effect Behaviors followed by desirable consequences will happen again Behaviors followed by aversive consequences will happen less in the future
B.F. Skinner Built off Thorndike's work Developed operant chamber "Skinner's Box" (rats & pigeons)
Positive something is added
Negative something is taken away
Reinforcement Increases likelihood of a behavior happening in the future
Punishment Decreases likelihood of behavior happening in the future
Acquisition Learning new set of contingencies Key Features: timing, magnitude, consistency
Primary Reinforcers An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
Secondary Reinforcers A stimulus that gains it reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
Extinction Decreasing a previously reinforced behavior; discontinue reinforcement
Extinction burst (testing limits)
Discriminative Stimuli Cues in the environment that signal a contingency is in place
Schedules of Reinforcement The pattern/frequency of reinforcement impacts the speed of acquisition & resistance to extinction (Continuous, Partial, Ratio: fixed, variable, Interval: fixed, variable)
Continuous Reinforcement Every instance of the target behavior is reinforced Rapid Acquisition/ Rapid Extinction
Partial Reinforcement Not very instance is reinforced Slower Acquisition/ Slower Extinction Patterns: Fixed ratio, Variable ratio, Fixed interval, Variable interval
Fixed Ratio Reinforcement provided after fixed # of responses EX: punch card
Variable Ratio Reinforcement provided after a random (but specified) # of responses are made EX: slot machines
Fixed Interval Reinforcement provided the first response after a fixed amount of time has passed since the last reward (scallop shape pattern)
Variable Interval Reinforcement provided the first response that occurs after a random (but specified) amount of time has passed
Latent Learning Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Intrinsic Motivation A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
Extrinsic Motivation A desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
Learned Helplessness Seligman & dogs in shuttle boxes dogs with no control over their environment developed learned helplessness
Observational Learning Learning by observing the behavior of others
Bandura's Bobo Doll Experiment children who saw aggressive behavior, became more aggressive
Algorithm Methodological approach (guarantee answer, but take forever)
Heuristic Mental short-cut (decreased accuracy)
Availability Heuristic Estimated the likelihood of an event based on it's availability in memory EX: Homicide rates, casino slot odds, terrorist attacks
Representative Heuristic Estimating the likelihood of an event based on how well it matches a prototype
Framing Judgments may be affected by how an issue is posed
Belief Perseverance We hold on to beliefs despite evidence to the contrary
Wishful Thinking We want to believe desired outcomes and will require little evidence
Overconfidence The tendency to be more confident than correct - to over-estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements
Confirmation Bias A tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
Intuition Pro: adaptive Con: could be wrong, no guarantee
Explicit Memory Formation Frontal lobes & Hippocampus
Implicit Memory Formation Cerebellum & Basal ganglia
Emotion-Related Memory Formation Amygdala
Created by: 100000779212541