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WGU EKC

TermDefinition
Stakeholders People important in the lives of children, especially regarding the assessment of children
Assessment Process for gathering information to make decisions about young children.
Techniques Methods, whether formal or informal for gathering assessment information
Accountability Being responsible for the proper education of all children
Formative Assessment Data is gathered while teaching or program implementation is occurring, changes to instruction is made while they are in process
High Stakes Assessment Any test applied to make life decisions for the educational futures of young children
Authentic Assessments Determining developmental process of children through a variety of means, including observations and special problems or situations
Raw Score Number of items answered correctly on a test
Mean The arithmetic average of a group of scores
Range The spread of the scores or the difference between the top score and the bottom score on a test
Standard Deviation The distance scores depart from the mean
Normal Curve Bell shaped curve representing the usual distribution of human attributes.
Standardized Test/Norm Referenced Test Test that interprets a child's performance in comparison to the performance of other children with similar characteristics
Population Group of individuals on which a standardized test is normed.
Normative Sample Subset of a population that is tested for a standardized test.
Norming The process of finding out what score most children of a given age will earn on a particular test
Norms Scores obtained from the testing of a normative sample for a standardized test
Criterion Referenced Test A standardized test that compares a child's performance to his or her own progress in a particular skill
Derived Score Score obtained by comparing the raw score with the performance of children of known characteristics on a standardized test
Age Equivalent Score Derived score giving a child's performance as the which is normal for a certain grade.
Grade Equivalent Score Derived score giving a child's performance as that which is normal for a certain grade.
Extrapolated Score Derived score estimated from norm scores because no one with that particular score was actually part of the normative sample.
Percentile Ranks Derived scores indicating the percentage of individuals in the normative group whose test scores fall at or below a given raw score.
Standard Score Created statistically. Process converts raw scores to numbers that can be used to compare progress on a particular dimension
Scaled Score Statistically determined scores that are used to derive total scores or that refer to results on su btests of an instrument
Deviation Quotients Standard scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of usually 15
Normal curve Equivalents Standard Scores for group teests; scale has 100 equal parts., mean is usually 50, standard deviation is usually 21.06
Stanines Standard scores with nine unequal bands. Bands 4, 5 & 6 represent average performance.
Reliability Consistency, dependability or stability of hte test results
Test - Retest Reliability Ability to get the same results from a test taken twice within two weeks.
Interscorer Reliability Ability of a test to produce the same results regardless of who administers it
Standard error of measurement Estimate of the amount of variation that can be expected in test scores as a result of reliability correlations
Validity Extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure.
Face validity Whether a test looks as if it is testing what it is supposed to be testing
Content Validity Extent of how well a test tests the subject matter it is supposed to test.
Criterion related validity Relationship between the scores on a test and another criterion measure.
Concurrent Validity Relationship between a test and another criterion when both are obtained at about the same time.
Predictive Validity How accurately a test score can be used to estimate performance on some variable or criterion in the future.
Construct Valitity The extent to which a test measures a theoretical characteristic or trait
Convergent Validity Demonstrated when similar instruments measuring similar constructs yield comparable results.
Discriminate Validity Demonstrated by showing that items that should be unrelated to a theory or construct are indeed unrelated.
Social Validity Describes the usefulness of assessment information for the teacher in an educational setting
Absence of Bias Assures that a test is not offensive or unfair to certain children.
Confidentiality Allowing a child's assessment and other records to be available only to school personnel agency officials and parents
Student Led Conferences Meetings between teacher and child where the learner holds the responsibility for reviewing and judging self progress.
Grades Letters or numbers ascribed to child performance based on summative judgement by the teacher regarding child accomplishment of a task.
Report Card Formal written documents that form a legal academic history for a child.
Standards Based An approach to teaching that requires teachers to coordinate instruction to specific standards or goals.
Screening Results Documentation of broad based, quick overview of a child's development or educational progress on a set of objectives or milestones.
Initial Referral Conference Meeting where teachers and parents meet to share concerns about a child's progress in the learning situation.
IEP Individual Educational Plan Multidisciplinary meeting where parents and those involved in intervention with a young child with disabilities to access progress.
Multidisciplinary Staffing Group of professionals involved in the assessment of children with special needs, teaching and evaluation of the child
Stakeholders People important in the lives of children, especially regarding the assessment of children.
Accountability Being responsible for the proper education of all children.
accountability being responsible for the proper education of all children.
age-equivalent score derived score giving a child’s performance as that which is normal for a certain age
amniocentesis a prenatal test in which amniotic fluid is withdrawn from the embryonic sac of a fetus.
anecdotal notes brief notes of significant events or critical incidents in a particular child’s day.
Apgar Rating Scale screening test given to newborn infants 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth.
artifacts . the materials that children produce to demonstrate knowledge, skills, or dispositions
assessment process for gathering information to make decisions.
atypical development unusual developmental pattern of children.
authentic assessment determining developmental progress of children through a variety of means, including observations and special problems or situations.
behavioral intervention plans plans made based on assessment of young children who present troubling behavior. Modifications to the regular program are made and monitored.
behavior questionnaires questionnaires designed to give parents an opportunity to report any behavior problems of their children.
biological risk risk to infant because of prenatal, perinatal, or neonatal difficulty.
checklists forms for recording the skills or attributes of the children in a class.
Child Find federal requirement for teachers (and others working with young children) to identify young children with disabilities so they may receive appropriate services and interventions to ameliorate such disabilities.
Child Find team group of professionals whose responsibility it is to determine children with special needs.
child study in-depth look at a particular child at a specific point in time.
chorionic villus biopsy a prenatal test in which chorionic tissue is removed from the developing placenta
class journals diaries that teachers keep about a group’s progress toward meeting educational goals
concurrent validity relationship between a test and another criterion when both are obtained at about the same time.
confidentiality allowing a child’s assessment and other records to be available only to school personnel, agency officials, and parents.
content validity extent of how well a test tests the subject matter it is supposed to test.
construct validity the extent to which a test measures a theoretical characteristic or trait.
constructivist perspective views teaching and learning as a process of discovery for the learner, based on the learner’s prior knowledge. Teacher facilitates knowledge, skills, and attitude learning to support individual development.
convergent validity is demonstrated when similar instruments measuring similar constructs yield comparable results.
correlation coefficient degree of relationship between two variables.
criterion-based instruments are those based on a learning goal or standard. Finite steps in the learning of particular concepts are measured.
criterion-referenced measures tests that compare performance in certain skills to accepted levels.
criterion-referenced test a standardized test that compares a child’s performance to his or her own progress in a certain skill or behavior.
criterion-related validity relationship between the scores on a test and another criterion.
curriculum-based language assessment a process for determining a child’s functional language skills and vocabulary related to the subject matter being studied.
curriculum-based measures diagnostic tests for specific subjects.
derived score score obtained by comparing the raw score with the performance of children of known characteristics on a standardized test.
developmentally appropriate practice planning instruction for preschool children around topics rooted in the children’s social world.
deviation quotients standard scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of usually 15.
diagnostic evaluation tests used to identify a child’s specific areas of strength and weakness, determine the nature of the problems, and suggest the cause of the problems and possible remediation strategies.
diagnostic measures are those used by psychologists and others who receive special training, and often certification for using these specialized instruments, that become a key determinant to entitle young children for special educational intervention and service
diagnostic tests tests used to identify a child’s specific areas of strength and weakness, determine the nature of the problems, and suggest the cause of the problems and possible remediation strategies.
documentation collection of artifacts to support record keeping of child’s progress in learning.
documentation panel is the part of the Reggio Emilia process that shows, publicly, the learning accomplishments of young children.
dynamic assessment one-to-one interview approach between teacher and student using available assessment information for teaching a specific skill.
ecological assessment an approach that includes the classroom environment, personal interactions, and the learning tasks as variables in the collection of evidence for the measure of learning for individuals.
event sampling record of skills or behaviors a teacher wants the children to know or to do
extrapolated score derived score estimated from norm scores because the raw score is either less than or greater than anyone in the normative sample.
checklists forms for recording the skills or attributes of the children in a class.
Child Find federal requirement for teachers (and others working with young children) to identify young children with disabilities so they may receive appropriate services and interventions to ameliorate such disabilities.
Child Find team group of professionals whose responsibility it is to determine children with special needs.
child study in-depth look at a particular child at a specific point in time.
chorionic villus biopsy a prenatal test in which chorionic tissue is removed from the developing placenta
class journals diaries that teachers keep about a group’s progress toward meeting educational goals
concurrent validity relationship between a test and another criterion when both are obtained at about the same time.
confidentiality allowing a child’s assessment and other records to be available only to school personnel, agency officials, and parents.
content validity extent of how well a test tests the subject matter it is supposed to test.
construct validity the extent to which a test measures a theoretical characteristic or trait.
constructivist perspective views teaching and learning as a process of discovery for the learner, based on the learner’s prior knowledge. Teacher facilitates knowledge, skills, and attitude learning to support individual development.
convergent validity is demonstrated when similar instruments measuring similar constructs yield comparable results.
criterion-based instruments are those based on a learning goal or standard. Finite steps in the learning of particular concepts are measured.
criterion-referenced measures tests that compare performance in certain skills to accepted levels.
criterion-referenced test a standardized test that compares a child’s performance to his or her own progress in a certain skill or behavior.
criterion-related validity relationship between the scores on a test and another criterion.
curriculum-based language assessment a process for determining a child’s functional language skills and vocabulary related to the subject matter being studied.
curriculum-based measures diagnostic tests for specific subjects.
derived score score obtained by comparing the raw score with the performance of children of known characteristics on a standardized test.
developmentally appropriate practice planning instruction for preschool children around topics rooted in the children’s social world.
deviation quotients standard scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of usually 15.
diagnostic evaluation tests used to identify a child’s specific areas of strength and weakness, determine the nature of the problems, and suggest the cause of the problems and possible remediation strategies.
diagnostic measures are those used by psychologists and others who receive special training, and often certification for using these specialized instruments, that become a key determinant to entitle young children for special educational intervention and service
diagnostic tests tests used to identify a child’s specific areas of strength and weakness, determine the nature of the problems, and suggest the cause of the problems and possible remediation strategies.
documentation collection of artifacts to support record keeping of child’s progress in learning.
documentation panel is the part of the Reggio Emilia process that shows, publicly, the learning accomplishments of young children.
dynamic assessment one-to-one interview approach between teacher and student using available assessment information for teaching a specific skill.
ecological assessment an approach that includes the classroom environment, personal interactions, and the learning tasks as variables in the collection of evidence for the measure of learning for individuals.
event sampling record of skills or behaviors a teacher wants the children to know or to do
extrapolated score derived score estimated from norm scores because the raw score is either less than or greater than anyone in the normative sample.
face validity whether a test looks as if it is testing what it is supposed to be testing.
family collaboration involving the family reciprocally in all phases of the assessment of a child with a developmental problem.
formative assessment data is gathered while teaching or program implementation is occurring; changes to instruction and programs are made while they are in process
formative evaluation assessment an approach to examining young children that holds that assessment is an ongoing process. It is similar to the scientific approach, in which a query is generated, validated or not, and then another query is formed.
frequency records checklists for recording the presence or absence of, frequency of, or quality of selected behaviors
functional assessment focused observational method that links individual assessment to curricular intervention for one student.
grade-equivalent score derived score giving a child’s performance as that which is normal for a certain grade
grades letters or numbers ascribed to child performance, based on a summative judgment by the teacher regarding child accomplishment of a task, a course, or a marking period—quarter, semester, year.
high-stakes decision any test applied to make life-affecting decisions for the educational futures of young children.
IDEA federal law that governs the practices for delivery of educational services to all children with disabilities
IEP goals the specified learning goals for children with disabilities. These are established by a multidisciplinary team that includes the child’s parents.
individualized academic tests formal interviews of children on specific topics.
Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) the formal document that governs the contract for educational intervention for a young child with disabilities.
Individualized Educational Plan conference (IEP conference) the multidisciplinary meeting where parents and those involved in intervention with a young child with disabilities meet to assess progress, or review initial assessment results, and plan educational interventions to support the child’s learning.
Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) specific plan for the assessing of needs and for the services needed for a child with a developmental problem.
informal evaluation task activities used to assess the instructional needs and levels of children
initial referral conference the meeting where teachers and parents meet to share concerns about a child’s progress in the learning situation.
interpolated score derived score estimated from norm scores because no one with that particular score was actually part of the normative sample.
interrater reliability ability of a test to produce the same results regardless of who administers it.
interscorer reliability ability of a test to produce the same results regardless of who administers it.
intrinsically motivating causing a child to do something or continue doing something because of the nature of the thing or activity itself.
inventory test to assess overall ability in a given area.
learner outcomes expectations for children’s performances.
mastery learning the philosophy that promotes the idea that everyone should learn particular concepts or skills and that teachers are responsible for teaching toward this level of accomplishment for all children.
mean the arithmetic average of a group of scores.
mediated learning experience (MLE) teaching approach in which the teacher uses questions, suggestions, and cues to prompt the child to think more consciously about the task and to expand learner expertise.
multidisciplinary staffing group of professionals involved in the assessment of children with special needs, the teaching of these children, and the evaluation of their progress.
multiple intelligence theory theory that children have seven areas of intellectual competence that are relatively independent of each other.
normal curve bell-shaped curve representing the usual distribution of human attributes.
normal-curve equivalents standard scores for group tests; scale has 100 equal parts, mean is usually 50, and standard deviation is usually 21.06.
normative sample subset of a population that is tested for a standardized test.
norm-based instruments tests that compare children to others of similar age, grade level, or other important characteristics.
norm-referenced test test that interprets a child’s performance in comparison to the performance of other children with similar characteristics.
norms scores obtained from the testing of a normative sample for a standardized test.
objectivity implies that a scoring scheme is sufficiently clear and discrete so that all those applying the criteria will obtain similar scores.
observation records written records of the observations of a child including anecdotes, daily logs, and in-depth running records.
observations systematic means of gathering information about children by watching them.
outcomes are the specifications used by school districts, states, and professional associations to describe measurable educational goals.
parent interview an interview of a child-care professional with a parent for determining how well a child is doing.
parent perspective a parent’s perception of a child’s development, learning, and education.
parent questionnaires questionnaires given by child-care professionals to parents for obtaining information about a child.
parental reports information from a parent concerning a child.
parents’ rights as specified in state and federal law, parents are assured that schools and agencies will fully involve and inform parents in the care and education of their children.
percentile ranks derived scores indicating the percentage of individuals in the normative group whose test scores fall at or below a given raw score.
performance refers to actions on the part of learners that can be assessed through observation, review of child-produced documents, or other learning products.
performance assessment determining developmental progress of children through a variety of means, including observations and special problems or situations.
performance-based assessment is based on child-action related to an educational activity. That is, the child does the task and the teacher watches and scores the results.
P.L. 99–457 Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments, 1986
play-based assessment relies on the teacher’s knowledge of child’s play to judge the social/emotional, language, cognitive, and physical development of a young child. This can be conducted in a natural situation or by interview.
population group of individuals on which a standardized test is normed.
portfolios places, such as folders, boxes, or baskets, for keeping all the information known about the children in a class.
precutaneous umbilical blood sampling a specialized prenatal test performed during pregnancy. The test predicts the potential for biological disability.
predictive validity how accurately a test score can be used to estimate performance on some variable or criterion in the future.
prenatal testing testing done prior to the birth of a baby
prereferral screening refers to the evidence that you gather to substantiate a developmental concern regarding child progress.
presentation mode way a task or learning situation is presented to a child as part of instruction.
primary responsibility the person expected to perform a certain task.
project-based learning curricula organized on the basis of child generated curiosities
psychological evaluation assessment that incorporates developmental psychological and educational tasks.
range the spread of the scores or the difference between the top score and the bottom score on a test.
rating scales methods of recording whether children possess certain skills or attributes and to what extent.
raw score the number of items that a child answered correctly on a test.
referral questions questions posed in a child study to aid in the determination of the specific problems and needs of a child and the assessing of the developmental progress of the child.
Reggio Emilia approach holistic community way to develop early childhood programs that includes all stakeholders—child, parents, teachers, school leaders, and the community at large.
reliability consistency, dependability, or stability of test results.
report card formal, written documents that form a legal academic history for a child.
reporting ways that teachers generate their knowledge about children’s accomplishments.
resiliency capacity of children and families to overcome odds in spite of obstacles that developmental and environmental factors may place in the way of individuals.
response mode how a child responds to a direction or instruction.
RTI conference the conference with one or more specialists to discuss Tier 1 (modified tasks in the typical classroom), Tier 2 (specialized intervention), Tier 3 (intensive intervention).
rubrics scoring criteria for performance tasks.
running records notes made of routine functioning of an individual child or a small group of children.
scaled score statistically determined scores that are used to derive total scores or that refer to results on subtests of an instrument.
screening results documentation of broad-based, quick overview of child’s developmental or educational progress on a set of objectives/ milestones.
screening test test used to identify children who may be in need of special services, as a first step in identifying children in need of further diagnosis; focuses on the child’s ability to acquire skills.
social validity describes the usefulness of assessment information for the teacher in the educational setting.
specificity percentage of children without developmental problems who are correctly identified by a developmental screening test.
stakeholders people important in the lives of children, especially regarding the assessment of children.
standard deviation the distance scores depart from the mean.
standard error of measurement (SEM) estimate of the amount of variation that can be expected in test scores as a result of reliability correlations.
standard score is created statistically. This process converts raw scores to numbers that can be used to compare child progress on a particular dimension.
standardized test test that interprets a child’s performance in comparison to the performance of other children with similar characteristics.
standards-based teaching an approach to teaching that requires teachers to coordinate instruction to specified standards or goals.
stanines standard scores with nine unequal bands; bands four, five, and six represent average performance.
strength-based assessment requires the assessor to focus on a child’s capacities to plan intervention.
student-led conferences are those meetings between teacher and child where the learner holds the responsibility for reviewing and judging selfprogress in relationship to class standards and teacher judgment. May include parents.
summative evaluation reports the final results of a given assessment. For teachers, this often means the end-of-the-year-summary of child progress.
task analysis process in which large goals are broken down into smaller objectives or parts and sequenced for instruction
technical issues variables of task, learner, and context that can cause problems with performance assessment.
techniques methods, whether formal or informal, for gathering assessment information.
test instrument for measuring skills, knowledge, development, aptitudes, and so on.
test-retest reliability ability to get the same results from a test taken twice within two weeks.
textbook tests assessment materials published by textbook publishers to accompany their instructional materials.
time sampling checklist for determining what is happening at a particular time with one or more children.
treatment validity the usefulness of test results for planning intervention.
typical development the usual or expected developmental pattern of children.
ultrasound a prenatal test in which sound waves are used to determine a fetus’s development.
validity the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure.
correlation coefficient degree of relationship between two variables.
Created by: Luvquiltn