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Review Questions

Essentials of Radiation Biology and Protection 2nd Edition Chapter 2

QuestionAnswer
Possessing two sets of chromosomes Diploid
The halves into which the chromosome is longitudinally divided, which are held together by the centromere and move to opposite poles of a dividing cell during anaphase Chromatid
The first stage of mitosis or meiosis when chromosomes become visible Prophase
The gap or growth period following the replication of DNA and prior to mitosis G2
A complex organic protein that accelerates chemical reactions Enzyme
Any living entity Organism
Cell devision of germ cells, which consists of two cell divisions but only one replication of DNA Meiosis
The stage of mitosis where chromosomes are arranged Metaphase
RNA that binds amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis Transfer RNA
The distructive phase of metabolism, in which complex substances are changed into simpler substances Catabolism
Nucleic acid that controls protein synthesis Ribonucleic Acid
The period between cell division, known as the resting stage, when DNA is being synthesized Interphase
A two-layered membrane that surrounds the cell nucleus Nuclear Membrane
The basic unit of heredity that has a specific location on chromosome Gene
The linear thread of a cell nucleus Chromosome
Period of synthesis or replication S-Phase
A stage in mitosis and meiosis between metaphase and telophase ni which chromatids migrate toward opposite poles of the cell Anaphase
The construction phase of metabolism, when a cell takes the substances from blood that are necassary for repair and growth and converts them into cytoplasm Anabolism
Any chromosome that is other than the sex chromosome Autosome
The constricted area of the chromosome that separates the chromosome into two arms Centromere
A material in the nucleus that contains genetic information Chromatin
A polymer composed of deoxyribonucleotides arranged in a double helix Deoxyribonucleic Acid(DNA)
A chromosome mutation in which either one or both segments of a chromosome join to another chromosome Duplication
The gap or growth period following the replication of DNA and prior to mitosis G1
The mature male or female reporductive cell Gamete
Having half the diploid number of chromosomes found in somatic cells Haploid
A large molecule Macromolecule
RNA that carries amino acids to ribosomes for assisting in protein synthesis Messanger RNA
Type of cell division involving somatic cells in which a parent cell divides to create tow daughter cells that contain the same chromosome number and DNA content as the parent Mitosis
Spherical body in the cell nucleus that holds nuclear RNA Nucleolus
A molecule created by combining two or more of teh same molecules Polymer
A colloidal structure of organic and inorganic materials and water that form the living cell Protoplasm
RNA that exists in ribosomes and assists in protein synthesis Ribosomal RNA
The final of mitosis or meiosis, during which there is reconstruction of the nuclear membrane and cell cytoplasm Telophase
Two or more tissues combined to perform a specific function: Organs
Assist in growth, construct new tissues, and repair injured or worn-out cells: Proteins
The location of genetic information is in the: Nucleus
Which RNA nucleotide base pairs with adenine in DNA synthesis? Guanine
The normal diploid or 2n number is humans: 46
In which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell? Metaphse
During meiosis, or reduction division: The cell divides twice in succession, but the chromosomes are duplicated only one time
Created by: Dallas1856