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Bart's Minerals

Chapter 3

What are the 4 layers of the Earth? Inner Core, Outer Core, Mantle, Crust
What is the Inner Core made of? Solid Nickel and Iron
What is the temperature of the Inner Core? It is about 5000 degrees Celsius
What element found in the Earth's Core creates the Earth's magnetic Field? Iron
Why is the Inner Core Solid instead of Liquid? It is a solid because it is under great pressure.
What is the Outer Core made of? Liquid Nickel and Iron
What is the temperature of the Outer Core? It is about 2200 degrees Celsius
What layer of the Earth is makes up about 80% of Earth's volume? Mantle
What is the Mantle made of? Molten, liquid rock (magma)
What is the temperature of the Mantle? It ranges from 871 too 2200 degrees Cesius.
What 2 layers of the Earth does the Moho boundary separate? The Crust and Mantle
What is the thin layer of solid rock on the surface of the Earth called? Crust
What are the main compounds that makes up 75% of the crust called? Silicates
What is the definition of a mineral? Naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solid, with a definite chemical composition.
How do minerals form? They form as crystals from the cooling of hot liquid rock (magma)
What causes minerals to form large crystals? If the magma cools slowly.
What causes minerals to form tiny to microscopic crystals? If the magma cools quickly.
How are some mineral crystals formed from solution? If a mineral compound dissolves in liquid then the liquid evaporates it will leave mineral crystals behind.
List the 8 most common elements in the Earth's crust. Oxygen (O), Silicon (Si), Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Calcium (Ca), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), & Magnesium (Mg)
What are Silicates? Compounds formed by the combination of Oxygen (O) abd Silicon (Si).
Most minerals can be identified by what type of properties? Physical properties
What are the 7 common physical properties used to identify minerals? Color, Luster, Hardness, Streak, Breakage, Crystal Form, Density
What is Luster? The way a Mineral reflects light.
What are the 2 main types of Luster? Metallic & Non-metallic
What are 3 types of Non-metallic Luster? Glassy, Earthy & Pearly
Define Hardness. The ability for a mineral to resist being scratched.
What is the name of the list of 10 standard minerals and their hardnesses? Mohs Hardness Scale
List the 10 minerals in Mohs hardness scale in order from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest). 1. Talc 2. Gypsum 3. Calcite 4. Fluorite 5. Apatite 6. Feldspar 7. Quartz 8. Topaz 9. Corundum 10. Diamond
How does the Mohs hardness scale work? A mineral with a number higher on the scale will scratch a mineral with a lower number.
What is Streak? The color of the powder scraped off a mineral when it is rubbed on a rough surface (streak plate).
How do you know a minerals TRUE color? Do a streak test and look at the color of the powder.
Is a minerals' streak always the same color even if a mineral is a different color variation? Yes the streak is the TRUE mineral color.
What are the 2 types of breakage? Cleavage & Fracture
What is the term for the type of breakage when a mineral breaks in smooth, flat or angled surfaces every time? Cleavage
What is the term for the type of breakage when a mineral breaks in rough or jagged surfaces? Fracture
What are the 6 crystal forms of minerals? Cubic, Heagonal, Tetragonal, Orthorhombic, Monoclinic, Triclinic
Can Density be used as a physical property to help identify a mineral? Yes
List 4 other properties that can be used to identify minerals. Reactin to Acid (bubbles), Magnetism, Smell, Taste
List the 6 Mineral Groups. Silicates, Carbonate, Halides, Sulfates, Oxides, Native Elements
Which mineral group is the most common? Silicates
What are the 2 elements that make a mineral part of the Silicate group? Silicon (Si), and Oxygen (O)
Which mineral group is joined together in chains, sheets or 3-D networks? Silicates
Give 3 examples of Silicates. Feldspars, Quartz, Micas
What are the 2 elements that make a mineral part of the Carbonate group? Carbon (C) & Oxygen (O)
Which mineral group is used to make cement & lime? Carbonates
Give 2 examples of Carbonates. Calcite & Dolomite
Which mineral group is used to make steel, fertilizer and salt? Halides
Give 2 examples of Halides. Halite & Fluorite
What are the 2 elements that make a mineral part of the Sulfate group? Sulfur (S) & Oxygen (O)
Which mineral group is used in plaster? Sulfates
Which mineral group have Oxygen (O) as a major component? Oxides
Give 4 examples of Oxides. Hematite, Manetite, Corundum & Ice
Which Mineral group is of great economic importance and is made of pure elements? Native Elements
Give 7 examples of Native Elements. Gold (Au), Silver (Ag), Diamone (C), Sulfur (S), Graphite (C), Copper (Cu), Platinum (Pt)
What is the term for minerals or combinations of minerals from which metals and nonmetals can be removed in useable amounts? Ores
Give 3 examples of ores and the mineral removed from them. Cinnabar (Mercury), Bauxite (Aluminum), Hematite (Iron)
What is smelting? The heating of an ore so that a metal can be separated from it
What is an alloy? The combination of pure metals to form other metallic substances such as Brass & Steel.
What is the term for minerals that are hard, beautiful and durable? Gemstones
What are minerals that can be cut and polished for jewelery and decoration? Gemstones
What is the term used for the rarest and most valuable gemstones? Precious Stones
Give 5 examples of Precious stones. Diamonds, Rubies, Opals, Sapphires & Emeralds
Give 5 examples of Semiprecious stones. Amethysts, Zircons, Garnets, Turquoises & Jades
What is the term for gemstones that come from living things? Non-mineral gemstones
Give 3 examples of Non-mineral gemstones. Amber, Pearl & Coral
Created by: mickeycurran