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RT 230 Ch 5,6

Pathology for RTs

Ascites (additive) the accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity
Carcinoma of the gallbladder occurs infrequently, but most neoplasms within the gallbladder are malignant
Cholecystitis an acute inflammation of the gallbladder most frequently caused by an obstruction
Cholelithiasis (w/ stones,additive) the presence of gallstones
Cirrhosis (both) is a chronic liver condition in which the liver parenchyma and architecture are destroyed, fibrous tissue is laid down, and regenerative nodules are formed
Gallstone ileus a condition in which gallstones erode from the gallbladder, creating a fistula to the small bowel that may cause a bowel obstruction
Hepatitis an inflammation of the liver resulting from a variety of causes
Hepatomegaly enlargement of the liver as might be seen with viral hepatitis
Jaundice yellowish discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by bilirubin accumulation in the body tissues
Medical Jaundice results from hemolytic disease, in which excessive amounts of red blood cells are destoyed, or when the liver is damaged as a result of cirrhosis or hepatitis
Metastatic liver disease (subtractive) the liver is a common site for metastasis from other primary sites, because of the liver's role in filtering blood
Pancreatic cancer rapidly fatal due to difficulty diagnosing, most of the tumors arise as epithelial tumors of the duct and cause pancreatic obstruction
Pancreatitis (none) acute or chronic, asymptomatic or symptomatic inflammation of the pancreas caused by auto-digestion by pancreatic enzymes
Pseudocyst an abnormal or displaced space resembling a cyst
Surgical jaundice results from biliary obstruction, which prevents bile from entering the duodenum
Common Hepatic duct Bile drain's from the liver's right and left hepatic ducts directly into the what?
Ascites, Esophageal varices, Jaundice Patients with liver cirrhosis have a tendency to develop what?
Hep B and C Which types of viral hepatitis may be transmitted via blood or blood products?
CT and Ultrasound The diagnostic imaging modalities of choice for following the progress of a liver malignancy are?
Hepatocellular carcinoma A malignant liver tumor
Oral cholecystogram (OCG) functional exam of biliary system
Percutaneous transhepatic cholangoigram (PTC) visualizes the biliary tree
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) visualizes the biliary system and main pancreatic duct
T-tube cholangiogram visualizes common bile duct
Hepatitis A most common and highly contagious, excreted from the GI tract into fecal material, spread by contact
Hepatitis B transmitted in infected serum or blood products, more severe than Hep A, can be vaccinated (HBV)
Hepatitis C accounts for 80% of the cases of hepatitis that develops after blood transfusions, radiographically as hepatomegaly
Bladder carcinoma tumors are generally small and located in the area of the trigone
Crossed ectopy a condition in which one kidney lies across the body midline and is fused to the other kidney
Cystitis (additive) inflammation of the bladder as a result of its infection
Ectopic Kidney a kidney that is out of its normal position, usually lower than normal
Foley Catheter a catheter that is placed thru the urethra and retained in the urinary bladder by a balloon that is inflated with air or fluid
Horseshoe kidney a condition in which the lower poles of the kidney are joined across midline by a band of soft tissues, resulting in a roatation anomaly on one or both sides
Hydronephrosis (additive) an obstruction disease of the urinary system that causes a dilatation of the renal pelvis and calyces with urine
Hyperplasia overdevelopment
Hypoplasia less than normal development
Malrotation consists of incomplete or excessive rotation of the kidneys as they ascend from the pelvis in utero
Nephroblastoma (Wilm's tumor) a rapidly developing malignancy of the kidneys, usually affecting children before age 5
Nephroptosis prolapse of a kidney, mobile kidney that drops toward the pelvis when the pt is erect
Nephrostomy tube a tube inserted thru the abdominal wall into the renal pelvis to drain urine
Polycystic kidney disease (subtractive) a familial kidney disorder in which innumerable tiny cysts that are present congenitally gradually enlarge during aging to compress and eventually destroy normal tissues
Pyelonephritis bacterial infection of the kidney and its pelvis
Pyuria the presence of pus in the urine created by its drainage from renal abscesses into the kidneys collecting tubules
Renal Calculi are stones that develop from urine and can precipitate crystalline materials, especially calcium and its salts
Renal colic severe, intermittent pain caused by movement of stones or acute obstructions
Renal cysts (subtractive) an acquired abnormality common in adults, simple cysts that may be solitary or multiple and bilateral.
Renal failure the end result of a chronic process that gradually results in lost kidney function
Staghorn calculus a large renal calculus that assumes the shape of the pelvicalyceal junction, resembling the horn of a stag
Supernumerary Kidney a relatively rare anomaly consisting of the presence of a third, small rudimentary kidney
Uremia the retention of urea in the blood, as characteristic of renal failure
Ureteral diverticula an outpouching in the ureteral wall
Ureteral stent a tube used to maintain patency of the ureter. with the proximal end placed in the renal pelvis and the distal end placed in the urinary bladder
Urethal valve congenital presence of mucosal folds that protrude into the posterior urethra, which may cause significant obstruction to urine flow
Urinary tract infection is an infection in the urinary tract usually caused by a gramnegative bacillus that invades by an ascending route thru the urethra to the bladder to the kidney
Vesicoureteral reflux the backward flow of urine out of the bladder and into the ureters.
1 to 1.5 liters The amount of urine formed in a typical day is?
Nephron The microscopic unit in the kidney where urine is formed and excreted
BUN and creatinine levels, and coloration of urine Urinary system disorders may be suggested by abnormal levels of what?
fusion Horseshoe kidney is an anomaly of what?
Ureteroceles are ureteral dilations near the ureter's termination
Doppler ultrasound arterial and venous renal blood flow for a patient who has received a kidney transplant is best assessed by what imaging modality?
Urea renal failure is characterized by the abnormal retention of what substance in the blood?
BUN blood urea nitrogen
Creatinine is a waste product derived from a breakdown of a compound normally found in muscle tissue
8-25 mg normal BUN level
.6-1.5 mg/dl normal creatine level
UPJ (ureteropelvic junction) and UVJ (ureterovesical junction) What are the 2 valves of the ureter?
reflux What does a cystogram demonstrate?
urethral strictures What does a voiding cystogram study?
non-functional Does retrograde imply functional or non-functional test?
Renal angiography What test is most invasive and is used to evaluate a malignant renal mass?
Renal agenesis the absence of a kidney on one side and large kidney on the other side
Created by: Chrslarsen