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Med Term Ch10

Endocrine system

TermDefinition
homeostasis body's ability to maintain a state of equilibrium within its internal environment, regardless of changing conditions in the outside environment
hormone chemical substance produced by specialized cells of the body that works slowly and affects many different processes, including growth and development, sexual function, mood, and metabolism
metabolism sum of all chemical and physical processes occuring within living cells
endocrinology branch of medicine concerned with diagnosis and treatment of hormone imbalances and diseases that affect the endocrine glands
aden/o gland
adrenal/o adrenal glands
adren/o adrenal glands
calc/o calcium
gluc/o sugar, sweetness
glyc/o sugar, sweetness
pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid glands
pituitar/o pituitary gland
thym/o thymus gland
thyr/o thyroid gland
thyroid/o thyroid gland
toxic/o poison
-crine to secrete
-ism condition
-toxic poison
hyper- excessive, above normal
poly- many, much
Addison disease hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex that results in generalized malaise, weakness, muscle atrophy, severe loss of fluids and electrolytes, low blood pressure, hypoglycemia, and hyperpigmentation of the skin
cushing syndrome cluster of symptoms caused by excessive amounts of cortisol (glucocorticoid) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) circulating in the blood. may be due to the use of oral corticosteroid medication or by tumors that produce cortisol or ACTH
diabetes mellitus (DM) group of metabolic diseases characterized by high glucose levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, action, or both, and occur in two primary forms (type 1 and 2)
type 1 diabetes abrupt onset of DM usually in childhood caused by destruction of beta islet cells of the pancreas with complete deficiency of insulin secretion
type 2 diabetes gradual onset of DM usually appearing in middle age and caused by a deficiency in production of insulin or a resistance to the action of insulin by the cells of the body
insulinoma tumor of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas
panhypopituitarism total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormone activity
pheochromocytoma rare adrenal gland tumor that causes excessive release of epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (hormones that regulate heart rate and blood pressure) and induces severe blood pressure elevation
pituitarism any disorder of the pituitary gland and its function
fasting blood glucose (FBG) fasting blood sugar. measures level of glucose in blood after a 12-hour fast with increased levels that may indicate DM, diabetic acidosis, or some other disorder and decreased levels that may indicate hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinism, or some other disorder
glucose tolerance test (GTT) administration of glucose after a 12-hour fast to measure blood glucose levels at regular intervals (usually over a period of 3 hours) and used to diagnose diabetes mellitus with higher accuracy than other blood glucose tests
radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) test that involves oral administration of radioactive iodine (RAI) and measurement of how quickly the thyroid gland takes up (uptake) iodine from the blood to determine thyroid function)
thyroid function test (TFT) blood test that measures thyroid hormone levels to detect an increase or decrease in thyroid function
total calcium blood test that measures calcium to detect parathyroid and bone disorders
adrenalectomy excision of the adrenal gland to remove an adenoma or a carcinoma
lobectomy removal of one lobe in treatment of endocrine diseases such as hyperthyroidism
thymectomy excision of the thymus gland in cases of myasthenia gravis or a tumor
thyroidectomy excision of all or part (one lobe) of the thyroid gland
hormone replacement therapy (HRT) synthetic hormone used to correct a deficiency of estrogen, progesterone, testosterone hormone, relieve symptoms of menopause and prevent osteoporosis in women
insulins replace insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes or severe type 2 diabetes
hypothyroidism thyroid hormone deficiency. due to excessive secretions of thyroid hormones resulting in metabolic imbalance
hyperthyroidism overproduction of thyroid hormone
thyromegaly thyroid gland inflammation and englargment
cretinism form of hypothyroidism in infants
myxedema when hypothyroidism develops during adulthood. characterized by edema, low blood levels in thyroid hormones, weight gain, cold intolerance, fatigue, depression, muscle/joint pain, sluggishness
Graves disease most common form of hyperthyroidism. autoimmine disease, increases thyroid hormone production, enlarge thyroid gland. characterized by elevated metabolic rate, abnormal weight loss, excessive perspiration, muscle weak, emotional instability, exophthalmos
goiter enlarged thyroid gland
exophthalmos eyes protruding due to edematous swelling in the tissues behind them
Created by: 697149295