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Med Term Ch9

Reproductive System

neonate infant from birth to 28 days of age
infertility persistent inability to conceive a child
gamete reproductive cell (spermatozoon in the male and ovum in the female)
fertilization union of male and female gametes to form a zygote, leading to the development of a new individual
ova female reproductive cells
postpartum occurring after childbirth
gynecology female reproductive disorders secondary sex characteristics, pregnancy, menopause, menstruation
obstetrics and gynecology OB-GYN study with surgical and nonsurgical in gynecology treatment: infertility, birth control, hormone imbalance
obstetrics branch of medicine concerned with pregnancy and childbirth
neonatology diagnosis and treatment of disorders for neonates
urology branch of medicine for treating male reproductive system disorders diagnostic tests, medical and surgical procedures, drugs. also treats diseases in men and women's urinary system
purpose of reproductive systems produce and unite gametes and transport them to sites of fertilization. pass genetic material down generations
parts of women reproductive system ovaries fallopian tubes uterus vagina clitoris vulva aka genitalia (<-external. rest are internal)
parts of male reproductive system testes epididymis vas deferens seminal vesicles ejaculatory duct prostate penis
estrogen and progesterone responsible for development of secondary sex characteristics (breast development and menstruation cycle)
gonads (testes) primary sex organs of male. produce gametes (sperm), secrete sex hormones
amni/o amnion
cervic/o neck, cervix uteri
colp/o vagina
vagin/o vagina
galact/o milk
lact/o milk
gynec/o woman, female
hyster/o uterus (womb)
uter/o uterus
mamm/o breast
mast/o breast
men/o menses, menstruation
metr/o uterus (womb) measure
nat/o birth
oophor/o ovary
ovari/o ovary
perino/o perineum
salping/o tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)
vulv/o vulva
episi/o vulva
andr/o male
balan/o glans penis
gonad/o gonads sex glands
olig/o scanty
orch/o testis
orchi/o testes
orchid/o testes
test/o testes
prostat/o prostate
spermat/o spermatozoa sperm cells
sperm/i spermatozoa
sperm/o spermatozoa
varic/o dilated vein
vas/o vessel vas deferens duct
vescicul/o seminal vesicle
-arche beginning
-cyesis pregnancy
-gravida pregnant woman
-para to bear (offspring)
-salpinx tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)
-tocia childbirth labor
retro- backward behind
candidiasis vaginal fungal infection caused by Candida albicans and characterized by a curdy or cheeselike discharge and extreme eating
cervicitis inflammation of the uterine cervix, usually the result of infection or sexually transmitted disease
ectopic pregnancy implantation of the fertilized ovum outside (ectopic) the uterine cavity, most commonly in the oviducts (tubal pregnancy)
endometriosis presence of endometrial tissue outside (ectopic) the uterine cavity, such as the pelvis or abdomen
fibroid leiomyoma. benign neoplasm in the uterus that is composed largely of fibrous tissue
fistula abnormal tunnel connection two body cavities or a body cavity to the skin caused by an injury or infection, or inflammation
vesicovaginal abnormal duct between the bladder and vagina that results in sever urine loss from the vagina
pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) potentially life-threatening disorder that usually develops after the 20th week of pregnancy and is characterized by edema and proteinuria
preeclampsia nonconvulsive form of PIH that, if left untreated, may progress to eclampsia
eclampsia convulsion form of PIH that may be life-threatening
sterility inability of a woman to become pregnant or for a man to impregnate a woman
toxic shock syndrome TSS rare and sometimes fatal staphylococcal infection that generally occurs in mentruating women, who use tampons
anorchism anorchia. congenital absence of one or both testes.
balanitis inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis caused by irritation and invasion of microorganisms and commonly associated with inadequate hygiene of the prepuce and phimosis
cryptorchidism failure of one or both testicles to descend into the scrotum
epispadias congenital defect in which the urethra opens on the upper side of the penis near the glans penis instead of the tip
hypospadias congenital defect in which the male urethra opens on the under-surface of the penis instead of the tip
impotence erectile dysfunction. inability of a man to achieve or maintain a penile erection
phimosis stenosis or narrowing of the preputial orifice so that the foreskin cannot be pushed back over the glans penis
sexually transmitted disease STD veneral disease any disease affecting the male or female reproductive system that is acquired as a result of sexual intercourse or other intimate contact with an infected individual.
chlamydia one of the most damaging STD. caused by bacterium chlamydia trachomatic, causing cervicitis in women and urethritis in men
genital warts warts in the genitalia caused by human papillomavirus HPV and associated with cervical cancer in women
gonorrhea contagious bacterial infection caused by the organism Neisseria gonorrhoeae and most commonly affecting the genitourinary tract and occasionally the pharynx or rectum
herpes genitalis infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 of the male or female genital and anorectal skin and mucosa that may be transmitted through the placenta to the fetus during delivery
syphilis infectious chronic STD characterized by lesions that change to a chancre and many involve any organ or tissue
trichomoniasis protozoal infestation of the vagina, urethra, or prostate and the most common STD affecting men and women. although symptoms are most common in women
colposcopy examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument colposcope
hysterosalpingography radiography of the uterus and oviducts after injection of a contrast medium
laparoscopy visual examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall, usually at the umbilicus
mammography radiography of the breasts used to diagnose benign and malignant tumors
papanicolaou (pap) test microscopic analysis of a small tissue sample obtained form the cervix and vagina using a swab in order to detect carcinoma
digital rectal examination DRE examination of the prostate gland by finger palpation through the anal canal and the rectum
prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test blood test used to screen for prostate cancer in which elevated levels of PSA are associated with prostate enlargement and cancer
cerclage obstetric procedure in which a nonabsorbic suture is used for holding the cervix closed to prevent spontaneous abortion in a woman who has an incompetent cervix
dilation and curettage (D&C) surgical procedure that widens the cervical canal of the uterus (dilation) so that the endometrium of the uterus can be scraped (curettage) to stop prolonged/heavy uterine bleeding, diagnose uterine abnormalities,&obtain tissue for microscopic examination
hysterosalpingooophorectomy surgical removal of a uterus, a fallopian tube, and an ovary
lumpectomy excision of a small primary breast tumor ("lump") and some of the normal tissue that surrounds it
mastectomy complete or partial excision of one or both breasts, most commonly performed to remove a malignant tumor
total simple mastectomy. mastectomy that involves excision of an entire breast, nipple, areola, and the involved overlying skin
modified radical mastectomy that involves excision of an entire breast, including lymph nodes in the underarm (axillary dissection)
radical mastectomy that involves excision of an entire breast, all underarm lymph nodes, and chest wall muscles under the breast
reconstructive breast surgery reconstruction of a breast that has been removed due to cancer or other disease and commonly possible immediately following mastectomy so that patient awakens from anesthesia with a breast mound already in place
tissue (skin) expansion common breast reconstruction technique in which a balloon expander is inserted beneath the skin and chest muscle, saline solution is gradually injected to increase size, and the expander is the replaced with a more permanent implant
transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap surgical creation of a skin flap (using skin and fat from the lower half of the abdomen) which is passed under the skin to the breast area, shaped into a natural-looking breast, and sutured into place
tubal ligation sterilization procedure that involves blocking both fallopian tubes by cutting or burning them and tying them off
circumcision surgical removal of the foreskin or prepuce of the penis and usually performed on the male as a infant
transurethral resection surgical procedure to relieve obstruction caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (excessive normal tissue overgrowth) by inserting resectoscope into the penis and through urethra to chip away at prostatic tissue&flush out chips using an irrigatin solution
antifungals treat vaginal fungal infection. like candidiasis
estrogens treat symptoms of menopause (hot flashes, vaginal dryness) through hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
hormone replacement therapy HRT synthetic hormone used to correct a deficiency of estrogen, progesterone, testosterone or testosterone hormone, relive symptoms of menopause, and prevent osteoporosis in women
oral contraceptives birth control pills. prevent ovulation in order to avoid pregnancy
gonadotropins hormonal preparation used to increase sperm count in infertility
spermicides method of birth control that destroys sperm by creating a highly acidic environment in the uterus
amniocentesis (amniotic fluid test) obstetric procedure. used in prenatal diagnosis of abnormalities and fetal infections. involves surgical puncture to extract amniotic fluid
down syndrome edward syndrome (trisomy 18) turner syndrome (monosomy X) most common DNA abnormalities
vasectomy incision through scrotal sac, patient is in anesthesia. urologist cuts vas deferens from each testicle, then binds of (ligates) the ends with suture. prevents sperm from mixing with ejaculated semen, which prevents egg fertilization
ligand to bind off
vasovasostomy vasectomy reversal (pg. 234). more difficult than vasectomy. requires patient to go under anesthesia
Created by: 697149295



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