Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove Ads
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Pharm Autonomic NS c

Cholinergic Blockers

also referred to as: parasympatholytics, muscarinic antagonists, anticholinergics, muscarinic blockade
cholinergic blockers competitively block the actions of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors
cardiovascular effects: blockade of muscarinic receptors increases HR, can reduce the PR interval by blocking receptors in the AV node
respiratory effects: relaxes bronchial muscle , bronchodilation, decreases bronchial secretions
exocrine gland effects: very effective on salivary glands causing dry mouth, suppress thermoregulatory sweating[which can produce fevers in children]
urinary and GI effects: GI smooth muscle is affected from the stomach to the colon[visceral walls are relaxed and both tone and peristalsis are diminished] smooth muscle of bladder and ureters is relaxed[can precipitate urinary retention]
CNS effects: mild CNS excitation, at high doses agitation, hallucinations, delirium can partially correct parkinsonian tremor and EPS associated with antipsychotic drugs[especially if combined with a dopamine precursor]
optic effects: unopposed sympathetic dilator activity producing mydriasis[b/c papillary contrictor depends on muscarinic receptor stimulation] cycloplegia[paralysis of the ciliary muscle]resulting in inability to accommodate near vision
belladonna alkaloid group: atropine, scopolamine
quaternary group: propantheline[Probanthine]
others benztropine[Cogentin], darifenacin[Enablex], fesoterodine[Toviaz], oxybutynin[Ditropan], solifenacin[Vesicare], tolterodine[Detrol], trihexyphenidyl[Trihexy], trospium[Sanctura]
contraindicated in: glaucoma, specially angle-closure b/c of mydriasis and cycloplegia
cautious use in: obstructive GI or GU tracts, older adults b/c of CNS effects of cholinergic blockers
ADRs in cardiovascular: tachycardia
ADRs in respiratory: tend to thicken and dry bronchial secretions
ADRs in exocrine system: anhidrosis[no sweating], xerostomia[dry mouth]
ADRs in GI and GU: constipation, urinary hesitancy nd retention, risk for UTIs, impotence
ADRs on eye: increased intraocular pressure, blurred vision, photophobia
ADRs on CNS: mild excitation to dizziness, confusion, CNS depression
drugs that are not cholinergic blockers but have significant muscarinic blockade: antihistamines, disopyramide[Norpace], quinidine, phenothiazine, antipsychotics, TCAs
Parkinson's disease: useful for control of tremor, early in course of tx, control of drooling Trihex and Cogentin
Tx of EPS drug of choice for this: Cogentin, Trihex
Tx for overactive bladder and urinary incontinence: Enablex, Toviaz, Ditropan, Vesicare, Detrol, Sanctura no cholinergic effects at the myoneural junction for any of these drugs
oxybutynin[Ditropan] increases blood levels and bioavailability of nitrofurantoin so different antibiotic should be chosen
assessment for bladder outlet obstruction should be done prior to prescribing these drugs b/c that contraindicates them
prevention of N/V from motion sickness scopolamine patch behind ear
adjunct therapy in IBS and PUD: atropine, dicyclomine[Bentyl], propantheline
atropine poisoning in children s/s: burning sensations in the mouth, difficulty in swallowing, rash, blurred vision, tachycardia, tachypnea, fever up to 109.8, muscle incoordination, seizure, respiratory paralysis, death
antidote for atropine poisoning is: physostigmine[Abrilirium, Isopto Eserine]
Created by: heatherbrown2020