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mana 4345 test 2

vocab covering ch 3-6

QuestionAnswer
an interconnected network of thousands of networks and millions of computers linking businesses, educational institutions, government agencies, and individuals Internet
one of the Internet’s most popular services, providing access to over 100 billion Web pages the Web
a method of slicing digital messages into packets, sending the packets along different communication paths as they become available, and then reassembling the packets once they arrive at their destination packet switching,
the discrete units into which digital messages are sliced for transmission over the Internet packet
special-purpose computer that interconnects the computer networks that make up the Internet and routes packets to their ultimate destination as they travel the Internet router
computer program that ensures that packets take the best available path toward their destination routing algorithm
a set of rules and standards for data transfer protocol
the core communications protocol for the Internet Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
protocol that establishes the connections among sending and receiving Web computers and handles the assembly of packets at the point of transmission, and their re-assembly at the receiving end TCP
protocol that provides the Internet’s addressing scheme and is responsible for the actual delivery of the packets IP
responsible for placing packets on and receiving them from the network medium Network Interface Layer
responsible for addressing, packaging, and routing messages on the Internet Internet Layer
responsible for providing communication with the application by acknowledging and sequencing the packets to and from the application Transport Layer
provides a wide variety of applications with the ability to access the services of the lower layers Application Layer
Internet address expressed as a 32-bit number that appears as a series of four separate numbers marked off by periods, such as 64.49.254.91 IPv4 Internet address
Internet address expressed as 128 bit number IPv6 Internet address
IP address expressed in natural language domain name
system for expressing numeric IP addresses in natural language Domain Name System (DNS)
the address used by a Web browser to identify the location of content on the Web Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
a model of computing in which powerful personal computers are connected in a network together with one or more servers client/server computing
a powerful personal computer that is part of a network client
networked computer dedicated to common functions that the client computers on the network need | server
model of computing in which firms and individuals obtain computing power and software over the Internet cloud computing,
the Internet protocol used for transferring Web pages Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
the Internet protocol used to send mail to a server Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
a protocol used by the client to retrieve mail from an Internet server Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3)
a more current e-mail protocol that allows users to search, organize, and filter their mail prior to downloading it from the server Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
one of the original Internet services. Part of the TCP/IP protocol that permits users to transfer files from the server to their client computer, and vice versa File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
a terminal emulation program that runs in TCP/IP Telnet
a protocol that secures communications between the client and the server Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
a program that allows you to check the connection between your client and the server Ping
one of several route-tracing utilities that allow you to follow the path of a message you send from your client to a remote computer on the Internet Tracert
layer of Internet technology that is composed of telecommunications networks and protocols Network Technology Substrate layer
layer of the internet architecture that houses the TCP/IP protocol Transport Services and Representation Standards layer
layer of Internet architecture that contains client applications Applications layer
the “glue” that ties the applications to the communications networks, and includes such services as security, authentication, addresses, and storage repositories Middleware Services layer
owns and controls one of the major networks comprising the Internet’s backbone Network Service Provider (NSP)
high-bandwidth fiber-optic cable that transports data across the Internet backbone
measures how much data can be transferred over a communications medium within a fixed period of time; is usually expressed in bits per second (bps), kilobits per second (Kbps), megabits per second (Mbps),or gigabits per second (Gbps) bandwidth
multiple duplicate devices and paths in a network redundancy
hub where the backbone intersects with local and regional networks and where backbone owners connect with one another internet Exchange Point (IXP)
generally, a local area network operating within a single organization that leases access to the Web directly from regional and national carriers campus area networks (CAN)
firm that provides the lowest level of service in the multi-tiered Internet architecture by leasing Internet access to home owners, small businesses, and some large institutions Internet Service Provider (ISP)
the traditional telephone modem connection, now operating at 56.6 Kbps narrowband
refers to any communication technology that permits clients to play streaming audio and video files at acceptable speeds—generally anything above 100 Kbps broadband
delivering high-speed access through ordinary telephone lines found in homes or businesses Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
technology that piggybacks digital access to the Internet on top of the analog video cable providing television signals to a home cable modem
an international telephone standard for digital communication that offers guaranteed delivery at 1.54 Mbps T1
an international telephone standard for digital communication that offers guaranteed delivery at 45 Mbps T3
a TCP/IP network located within a single organization for purposes of communications and information processing intranet
formed when firms permit outsiders to access their internal TCP/IP networks extranet
delays in messages caused by the uneven flow of information packets through the network latency
a consortium of more than 200 universities, government agencies, and private businesses that are collaborating to find ways to make the Internet more efficient Internet2®
consists of up to hundreds of strands of glass or plastic that use light to transmit data fiber-optic cable
also referred to as 802.11b, 802.11a (Wi-Fi5), and 802.16 (WiMAX). Wireless standard for Ethernet networks with greater speed and range than Bluetooth Wi-Fi
new technology standard for short-range wireless communication under 10 meters Bluetooth
a set of technologies that enables efficient delivery of data to many locations on a network IP multicasting
a new technology that assigns levels of priority to packets based on the type of data being transmitted differentiated quality of service (diffserv)
Web browser with a graphical user interface(GUI) that made it possible to view documents on the Web graphically Mosaic
the sharing of files, information, graphics, sound, video, and other objects across all computer platforms in the world, regardless of operating system universal computing
the first commercial Web browser Netscape Navigator
Microsoft’s Web browser Internet Explorer
a way of formatting pages with embedded links that connect documents to one another, and that also link pages to other objects such as sound, video, or animation files hypertext
one of the next generation of GMLs that is relatively easy to use in Web page design. ____ provides Web page designers with a fixed set of markup “tags” that are used to format a Web page Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
a markup language specification developed by the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) that is designed to describe data and information | eXtensible Markup Language (XML)
software that enables a computer to deliver Web pages written in HTML to client computers on a network that request this service by sending an HTTP request Web server software
server designed to access specific information with a database database server
server designed to deliver targeted banner ads ad server
server that provides e-mail messages mail server
server that serves video clips video server
any computing device attached to the Internet that is capable of making HTTP requests and displaying HTML pages, most commonly a Windows PC or Macintosh Web client
the most-used application of the Internet. Uses a series of protocols to enable messages containing text, images, sound, and video clips to be transferred from one Internet user to another electronic mail (e-mail)
a file inserted within an e-mail message attachment
displays words typed on a computer almost instantaneously. Recipients can then respond immediately to the sender the same way, making the communication more like a live conversation than is possible through e-mail instant messaging (IM)
identifies Web pages that appear to match keywords, also called queries, typed by the user and provides a list of the best matches search engine
software program that gathers and/or filters information on a specific topic and then provides a list of results for the user intelligent agent
a Web application that allows Internet users to communicate with each other, although not in real time online forum
enables users to communicate via computer in real time, that is, simultaneously. Unlike IM, ____ can occur among several users online chat
enables music, video, and other large files to be sent to users in chunks so that when received and played, the file comes through uninterrupted | streaming media
a tool used by Web sites to store any information about a user when a visitor enters a Web site, the site sends a small text file (the ______) to the user’s computer so that information from the site can be loaded more quickly on future visits. cookie
personal Web page that is created by an individual or corporation to communicate with readers blog
program that allows users to have digital content, including text, articles, blogs and podcast audio files, automatically sent to their computers over the Internet Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
an audio presentation—such as a radio show, audio from a movie, or simply personal audio presentations—stored as an audio file and posted to the Web podcast
Web application that allows a user to easily add and edit content on a Web page wiki
a general term for the technologies that use VoIP and the Internet’s packet-switched network to transmit voice and other forms of audio communication over the Internet IP telephony
protocol that allows for transmission of voice and other forms of audio communication over the Internet Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
uses high-bandwidth Internet connections to deliver television programming to the home | IPTV
a methodology for understanding the business objectives of any system and designing an appropriate solution systems development life cycle (SDLC)
a list of capabilities you want your site to have business objectives
a list of the types of information systems capabilities you will need to achieve your business objectives system functionalities
the information elements that the system must produce in order to achieve the business objectives information requirements
description of the main components in a system and their relationship to one another system design specification
describes the flow of information at your e-commerce site: processing functions, , the databases, the security and emergency backup procedures, and the controls that will be used in the system logical design
translates the logical design into physical components physical design
hiring an outside vendor to provide the services you cannot perform with in-house personnel outsourcing
when a firm purchases or leases a Web server (and has total control over its operation) but locates the server in a vendor’s physical facility. The vendor maintains the facility, communications lines, and the machinery | co-location
involves testing the site’s program modules one at a time unit testing
involves testing the site as a whole, in a way the typical user will use the site system testing
verifies that the business objectives of the system as originally conceived are in fact working acceptance testing
a process in which the site is compared with those of competitors in terms of response speed, quality of layout, and design benchmarking
the arrangement of software, machinery, and tasks in an information system needed to achieve a specific functionality system architecture
e-commerce system architecture in which a Web server responds to requests for Web pages and a database server provides backend data storage two-tier architecture
e-commerce system architecture in which the Web server is linked to a middle-tier layer that typically includes a series of application servers that perform specific tasks as well as to a backend layer of existing corporate systems multi-tier architecture
verify that links on pages are still valid and also identify orphan files site management tools
the contents of a Web page are stored as objects in a database, rather than being hard-coded in HTML. When the user requests a Web page, the contents for that page are then fetched from the database dynamic page generation
used to create and manage Web content Web content management system (WCMS, WebCMS)
software programs that provide specific business functionality required of a Web site Web application server
software that provides the basic functionality needed for online sales, including an online catalog, order taking via an online shopping cart, and online credit card processing e-commerce merchant server software
list of products available on a Web site online catalog
allows shoppers to set aside desired purchases in preparation for checkout, review what they have selected, edit their selections as necessary, and then actually make the purchase by clicking a button shopping cart
offers an integrated environment that provides most or all of the functionality and capabilities needed to develop a sophisticated, customer-centric site merchant server software package (e-commerce server suite)
refers to all the underlying computing equipment that the system uses to achieve its e-commerce functionality hardware platform
refers to the fact that the server does not have to maintain an ongoing, dedicated interaction with the client stateless
requires input/output operations rather than heavy-duty processing power I/O intensive
refers to the nature of customer requests and customer behavior at a site user profile
operations that require a great deal of processing power CPU-intensive
refers to the ability of a site to increase in size as demand warrants scalability
increasing the processing power of individual components vertical scaling
employing multiple computers to share the workload horizontal scaling
a small, pre-built chunk of code that executes automatically in your HTML Web page; capable of performing a wide variety of tasks widget
a set of standards for communication between a browser and a program running on a server that allows for interaction between the user and the server Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
a proprietary software development tool that enables programmers using Microsoft’s IIS package to build dynamic pages Active Server Pages (ASP)
a programming language that allows programmers to create interactivity and active content on the client computer, thereby saving considerable load on the server Java
like CGI and ASP, a Web page coding standard that allows developers to dynamically generate Web pages in response to user requests Java Server Pages (JSP)
a programming language invented by Netscape that is used to control the objects on an HTML page and handle interactions with the browser JavaScript
a programming language created by Microsoft to compete with Java ActiveX
a programming language invented by Microsoft to compete with JavaScript VBScript
an integrated server-side environment for developing interactive Web applications ColdFusion
a set of public statements declaring to your customers how you treat their personal information that you gather on the site privacy policy
a set of design objectives that ensure disabled users can effectively access your site accessibility rules
version of a regular web site that is scaled downin content and navigation mobile Web site
application built to run on the mobile web browswer built into a smartphone or tablet computer mobile Web app
application designed specifically to operate using the mobile devices hardware and operating system. native app
the ability to ensure that information being displayed on a Web site or transmitted or received over the Internet has not been altered in any way by an unauthorized party integrity
the ability to ensure that e-commerce participants do not deny (i.e., repudiate) their online actions nonrepudiation
the ability to identify the identity of a person or entity with whom you are dealing on the Internet authenticity
the ability to ensure that messages and data are available only to those who are authorized to view them confidentiality
the ability to control the use of information about oneself privacy
the ability to ensure that an e-commerce site continues to function as intended availability
includes a variety of threats such as viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and bots malicious code (malware)
maleware that comes with a downloaded file that a user requests drive-by download
a computer program that has the ability to replicate or make copies of itself. and spread to other files virus
malware that is designed to spread from computer to computer worm
appears to be benign, but then does something other than expected. Often a way for viruses or other malicious code to be introduced into a computer system Trojan horse
type of malicious code that can be covertly installed on a computer when attached to the Internet. Once installed, the ___ responds to external commands sent by the attacker bot
collection of captured bot computers botnet
a program that can monitor and change the settings of a user's browser browser parasite
a program used to obtain information such as user's keystrokes, e-mail, instant messages, and so on spyware
any deceptive, online attempt by a third party to obtain confidential information for financial gain phishing
exploitation of human fallibility and gullibility to distribute malware social engineering
an individual who intends to gain unauthorized access to a computer system hacker
within the hacking community, a term typically used to denote a hacker with criminal intent cracker
"good" hackers who help organizations locate and fix security flaws white hats
hackers who act with the intention of causing harm black hats
hackers who believe they are pursuing some greater good by breaking in and revealing system flaws grey hats
to misrepresent oneself by using fake e-mail addresses or masquerading as someone else spoof
occurs when an organization loses control over its information to outsiders data breach
flooding a Web site with useless traffic to inundate and overwhelm the network Denial of service attack (DoS)
using numerous computers to attack the target network from numerous launch points Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack
a type of eavesdropping program that monitors information traveling over a network Sniffer
the process of transforming plain text or data into cipher text that cannot be read by anyone other than the sender and the receiver. The purpose of ________ is (a) to secure stored information and (b) to secure information transmission encryption
text that has been encrypted and thus cannot be read by anyone other than the sender and the receiver cipher text
any method for transforming plain text to cipher text Key (cipher)
every occurrence of a given letter is replaced systematically by another letter Substitution cipher
the ordering of the letters in each word is changed in some systematic way transposition cipher
both the sender and the receiver use the same key to encrypt and decrypt the message symmetric key encryption (secret key encryption)
developed by the National Security Agency (NSA) and IBM. Uses a 56-bit encryption key Data encryption standard (DES)
The most widely used symmetric key encryption algorithm. Offers 128-, 192-, and 256-bit keys. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
two mathematically related digital keys are used: a public key and a private key. Both keys can be used to encrypt and decrypt a message. However, once the keys are used to encrypt a message, that same key cannot be used to unencrypt the message public key cryptography
an algorithm that produces a fixed-length number called a hash or message digest hash function
"signed" cipher text that can be sent over the Internet digital signature e-signature
a technique that uses symmetric encryption for large documents, but public key encryption to encrypt and send the symmetric key digital envelope
a digital document issued by a certification authority that contains the name company, public key, a digital certificate serial number, an expiration date, an issuance date, the digital signature of the CA, and other identifying information digital certificate
a trusted third party that issues digital certificates certification authority CA
CAs and digital certificate procedures that are accepted by all parties public key infrastructure (PKI)
a widely used email public key encryption software program Pretty Good Privacy PGP
a client-server session in which the URL of the requested document, along with the contents, contents of forms, and the cookies exchanged, are encrypted secure negotiated session
a unique symmetric encryption key chosen for a single secure session session key
allows remote users to securely access internal networks via the Internet, using the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) virtual private network (VPN)
refers to either hardware or software that filters communication packets and prevents some packets from entering the network based on a security policy firewall
software server that handles all communications originating from or being sent to the Internet, acting as a spokesperson or bodyguard for the organization proxy server (proxy)
an assessment of the risks and points of vulnerability risk assessment
a set of statements prioritizing the information risks, identifying acceptable risk targets, and identifying the mechanisms for achieving these targets security policy
the action steps you will take to achieve the security plan goals implementation plan
educates and trains users, keeps management aware of security threats and breakdowns, and maintains the tools chosen to implement security security organization
determine who can gain legitimate access to a network access controls
include the use of digital signatures, certificates of authority, and public key infrastructure authentication procedures
the study of measurable biological or physical characteristics biometrics
small devices that generate six-digit passwords to prevent theft of passwords security token
determine differing levels of access to information assets for differing levels of users authorization policies
establishes where and when a user is permitted to access certain parts of a Web site authorization management system
involves the routine review of access logs (identifying how outsiders are using the site as well as how insiders are accessing the site's assets) security audit
Monitors and tracks online criminal activity reported to it by private corporations and government agencies that seek out its help CERT Coordination Center
division of the US Department of Homeland Security that coordinates cyber incident warnings and responses across government and private sectors US-CERT
legal tender defined by a national authority to represent value cash
the period of time between a purchase and actual payment for the purchase float
funds transferred directly via a signed draft or check from a consumer's checking account to a merchant or other individual checking transfer
represents an account that extends credit to consumers, permits consumers to purchase items while deferring payment, and allows consumers to make payments to multiple vendors at one time credit card
nonprofit association that sets standards for issuing banks credit card association
bank that actually issues credit cards and processes transactions issuing bank
institution that handles verification of accounts and balances processing center (clearinghouse)
account created by depositing funds into an account and from which funds are paid out or withdrawn as needed stored-value payment system
immediately debits a checking or other demand deposit account debit card
account that accumulates expenditures and to which consumers makes periodic payments accumulating balance payment system
a bank account that allows companies to process credit card payments and receive funds from those transactions merchant account
emulates the functionality of a regular wallet by authenticating the consumer, storing and transferring value, and securing the payment process from consumer to merchant digital wallet
an alternative payment system developed for ecommerce in which unique, authenticated tokens representing cash value are transmitted from consumers to merchants digital cash
permits consumers to make instant, online payments to merchants and other individuals based on value stored in an online account online stored value payment system
a credit-card sized plastic cards with an embedded chip that stores personal information; can be used to support mobile wireless ecommerce payments smart card
a method of automatic identification that uses short range radio signals to identify objects and users radio frequency identification (RFID)
system allows users to make micro payments and purchases on the Web, accumulating a debit balance for which they are billed at the end of the month digital accumulating balance payment
seeks to extend the functionality of existing checking accounts for use as online shopping payment tool digital checking payment system
form of online payment systems for monthly bills electronic billing presentment and payment (EBPP) system
A social science discipline that attempts to model and understand the behavior of humans in a marketplace consumer behavior
Shapes basic human values wants perceptions and behaviors culture
Subset of cultures that form around major social differences subculture
Ones family profession or occupation religion neighborhood and schools direct reference groups
Ones lify-cycle stage social class and life style group indirect reference groups
Influence the behavior of others through their personality skills or other factors opinion leaders (viral influencers)
An integrated pattern of activities interest and opinions lifestyle group
Set of needs drives motivators perceptions and learned behaviors psychological profile
Divides a market into different groups based on social class lifestyle and/or personality characteristics psychographic research
The transaction log that consumers establish as they move about the web clickstream behavior
The bundle of capabilities and services offered by the product or service feature set
The strategies and actions firms take to establish a relationship with a consumer and encourage purchases of its products or services marketing
Using the web as well as traditional channels to develop a positive long term relationship with customers thereby creating a competitive advantage for the firm by allowing it to charge higher prices Internet marketing
A good or service for which there are many dealers supplying the same product and all products in the segment are essentially identical commodity
The core benefit the customer receives from the product core product
The set of characteristics designed to deliver the products core benefits actual product
A product with additional benefits to customers beyond the core benefits embodied in the actual product augmented product
A set of expectations that consumers have relative to product or service from a specific company brand
Process of brand creation branding
When marketers are able to directly influence the design of the core product based on market research and feedback closed loop marketing
A set of plans for differentiating a product from its competitor’s and communicating them effectively to the marketplace brand strategy
The estimated value of the premium customers are willing to pay for using a branded product when compared to unbranded competitors brand equity
The overall costs of converting a prospect into a consumer customer acquisition costs
Costs incurred in convincing an existing customer to purchase again customer retention costs
With complete price transparency in a perfect information marketplace there will be one world price for every product Law of One Price
The difference between the highest and lowest prices in a market price dispersion
An attempt to appeal to consumers on the basis of the total number of products offered library effect
Records users activity at a web site transaction log
Gather personal data on name address phone zip code email address and other optional self confessed information on interests and tastes registration forms
Captures all the item selection purchases and payment data shopping cart database
A software application that stores records and attributes Database
A software application used by organizations to create maintain and access databases database management system (DBMS)
An industry standard database query and manipulation language used in relational databases SQL (Structured Query Language)
Represent data as two dimensional tables with records organized in rows and attributes in columns data within different tables can be flexibly related as long as the tables share a common data element relational databases
A database that collects a firms transactional and customer data in a single location for offline analysis data warehouse
A set of analytical techniques that look for patterns in the data of a database or data warehouse or seek to model the behavior of customers data mining
A description of the typical behavior of a customer or a group of customers at a website customer profile
Data mining based on specific queries query-driven data mining,
Involves the use of a model that analyzes the key variables of interest to decision makers model-driven data mining
Examines demographic and transactional data of groups and individuals at a web site and attempts to derive general rules of behavior for visitors rule-based data mining
Site visitors classify themselves into affinity groups characterized by common interest products are then recommended based on what other people in the group have recently purchased collaborative filtering
A repository of customer info that records all of the contacts that a customer has with a firm and generates a customer profile available to everyone in the firm with a need to know the customer customer relationship management (CRM) system
The ways in which customers interact with the firm customer touchpoints
Connect online marketers with publishers by displaying ads to consumers based on detailed profiles advertising networks
Create a market where many ad networks sell ad space to marketers advertising exchanges
Online auctions where advertisers bid for audience slots real-time bidding process (RTB)
Marketing strategy in which companies obtain permission from consumers before sending them info or promo messages permission marketing
One web site agrees to pay another web site a commission for new business opportunities it refers to the site affiliate marketing
The process of getting customers to pass along a company’s marketing message to friends family and colleagues viral marketing
A mapping of all significant online relationships social graph
Using online social networks to build and strengthen brands social network marketing
Using the power of an existing brand to acquire new customers for a new product or service brand leveraging
Segmenting the market based on a precise and timely understanding of an individual’s needs targeting specific marketing messages to their needs, and positioning the product against competitors as unique. One-to-one marketing
Changing the product not just the marketing message according to user preferences customization
In the web environment takes customization one-step further by allowing the customer to interactively create the product customer co-production
combines the best of Web content, transactions, and interactivity. transactive content
a text based listing of common questions and answers frequently asked questions (FAQs)
a company’s customer service representatives interactively exchange text based messages with one or more customers on a real time basis real-time customer service chat systems
sends email order confirmations and acknowledgments of emailed inquiries automated response system
putting a value on goods and services pricing
the quantity of goods that can be sold at various prices demand curve
selling products to different people and groups based on their willingness to pay price discrimination
creating multiple versions of information goods and selling essentially the same product to different market segments at different prices versioning
offers consumers two or more goods for a reduced price bundling
refers to different methods by which goods can be distributed and sold channel
occurs when a new venue for selling products or services threatens to destroy existing venues for selling goods channel conflict
Created by: romoore245