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Physical Examination

what are the 4 technique of assessment? ascultations, palpations, percussion and inspection
define inspection. casual observation to visual scrutiny of the patient
what is the palpation technique? process whereby the examiner uses the hands to feel for body movement , lumps, masses and skin characteristics. can be light or deep.
what is the percussion technique? where examiner places a finger against a body part and strike that finger with a fingertip from the other hand. the results can suggest normal tissues or typical sounds assoc. w/ abnormalities
what are the 5 percussion tones? flat, dull, resonant, hyperresonant, and tympanic
What are auscultations? most commonly used technique, includes listening to vital signs w/ a stethoscope places on bare skin.
define a flat percussion tone soft , high pitch and short duration. can be heard over the thigh
define a dull percussion tone medium intensity, pitch and duration. commonly heard over liver or tumor
define a resonant percussion tone loud intensity , low pitch and long duration. commonly heard over normal lung tissue
define a hyperressonant percussion tone very loud intensity, very low pitch and longer duration. commonly heard over emphysematous lung.
define a tympanic percussion tone loud intensity, high pitch and medium duration may be heard over gastric bubble
define tactile fremitus palpation of vibrations of the chest wall as the patient speaks.
what are the adventitous breath sounds commonly heard during ascultations? crackles, wheezing, ronchi, stridor, pleural friction rubs.
what does the use of accessory muscles imply? an increased work of breathing or diaphragm weakness
describe a barrel chest chest configuration in which the individual's anteroposterior chest is equal to the lateral diameter
describe flail chest and paradoxical respirations. apperarnace of thorax w/multiple rib fractures, causing the chest wall to move outward on expiration and inward on inspiration
what is scoliosis? lateral curvature of the spine.
what is Kyphosis? forward curvature of the spine.
What is Lordosis? backward curvature of the spine
what is the purpose of measuring diaphragmatic excursion? to ensure that the lungs are expanding equally
define stridor a crowning sound commonly caused by inflammation and edema of the larynx and trachea
what are crackles? discontinuous sounds heard at end of inspiration, usually associated w/ the accumulation of fluid.
how many lobes are in the right and left lung? R-3, L-2
how many segments are in each lung? 10
define pectus escavatum funnel shape sternum
term for pigeon breasted sternum pectus carinatum
fingers that appear full, fleshy and vascular are termed? clubbing of the fingers
what are the lung sounds assessed during ascultations? vesicular, bronchovesicular, bronchial/tracheal
describe characteristics of vesicular sounds low pitch, soft and short expirations; heard over most lung fields.
describe characteristics of bronchovesicular sounds medium pitch , expirations equaling inspirations; hear over main bronchus
describe characteristics of bronchial/tracheal sounds high pitch, loud and long expirations; heard only over trachea
describe decorticate posturing extension , internal rotation of arms and extending legs
describe decerebrate posturing flexing of arms at the elbow and wrists
what is the RSS & RASS and what does it assess? Richmond sedation scale & Richmond agitation sedation scale , measures the level of sedation in a patient
a patients level of consciousness is assessed using what scale Glasgow Coma Scale
describe the sequence for lung field ascultaions the examiner should first assess the apex of the lungs, listening to one side of the thorax and then moving to the corresponding area from posterior , anterior and laterial views.
describe ronchi. deep, rumbling sounds that are more pronounced on expirations
describe wheezing high pitched whistling caused by narrowing of he airways.
when are pleural friction rubs produced? when visceral ans parietal pleura become inflammed and no longer glide silently against eachother.
3 ways are pupils can change. dilation, constriction and unequal ( constricted and dilated)
how do we measure delirium ? CAM ( confusion assessment method) score.
Created by: ashleyjones