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Psychology 200-305

Modules 17,18,13,14,and 9

Mod. 17 Nature-Nurture question page 377 The debate concerning the relative contribution of genetic factors (nature) and environmental factors (nurture) to a person’s intelligence as well as to his or her biological, emotional, cognitive, personal, and social development.
Developmental psychologists page 377 Psychologists who study a person’s biological, emotional, cognitive, personal, and social development across the life span, from infancy through late adulthood.
Prenatal period page 379 The period from conception to birth, which lasts about 266 days (about nine months). It is divided into three phases: germinal, embryonic, and fetal. During the prenatal period, a single cell will divide and grow to form 200 billion cells.
Germinal stage The first stage of prenatal development, lasting two weeks from the moment of conception.
Embryonic stage The second stage of the prenatal period, spanning the 2–8 weeks that follow conception; during this stage, cells divide and begin to differentiate into bone, muscle, and body organs.
Fetal stage page 380 The third stage in prenatal development, beginning two months after conception and lasting until birth.
Teratogens page 380 Any agent that can harm a developing fetus (causing deformities or brain damage). It might be a disease (such as genital herpes), a drug (such as alcohol), or another environmental agent (such as chemicals).
Temperament 4-categories pg.384 1.Easy babies- 40%, happy,cheerful, had regular sleeping and eating habits, and adapted quickly to new situations. 2.Slow-to-warm-up babies- 15%, were more withdrawn, were moody, and tended to take longer to adapt to new situations. 3. Difficult babies-
Temperament (cont.) -10% were fussy, fearful of new situations, and more intense in their reactions.During a course of seven years, developed a more serious emotional problems.4.No-single- category babies -35%, had a variety of traits and could not be classified in category
Attachment- three kinds: page 385 A close fundamental emotional bond that develops between the infant and his or her parent or caregiver.
Attachment 1st kind: separation anxiety-An infant’s distress—as indicated by loud protests, crying, and agitation—whenever his or her parents temporarily leave.
Attachment 2nd kind: secure attachment-An emotional bond characteristic of infants who use their parent as a safe home base from which they can wander off and explore their environments.
Attachment 3rd kind: insecure attachment-An emotional bond characteristic of infants who avoid, or show ambivalence toward, their parents.
Piaget’s cognitive stages pg. 388 Four different stages—the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations stages—each of which is more advanced than the preceding stage because it involves new reasoning and thinking abilities.
1. Sensorimotor stage The first Piaget’s cognitive stages, lasting from birth to about age 2 years. Infants interact with and learn about their environments by relating their sensory experiences (such as hearing and seeing) to their motor actions (mouthing and grasping).
2. Preoperational stage The second of Piaget’s cognitive stages, lasting from the ages of about 2 to 7 years. During this stage, children learn to use symbols (such as words or mental images) to think about things that are not present and to help solve simple problems.
3. Concrete operations stage The third of Piaget’s cognitive stages, lasting from about the ages of 7 to 11 years. During this stage, children can perform a number of logical mental operations on concrete objects that are physically present.
4.Formal operations stage Piaget’s fourth cognitive stage, lasting from about 12 years of age through adulthood. During this stage, adolescents and adults develop the ability to think about abstract or hypothetical concepts,
Formal operations stage (cont.) to consider an issue from another person’s viewpoint, and to solve cognitive problems in a logical manner.
Erikson's stages pg.393 & 417 Psychosocial stages - According to Erikson, eight developmental periods during which an individual’s primary goal is to satisfy desires associated with social needs:
Erikson's stages (cont.) The eight periods are associated, respectively, with issues of trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, identity, intimacy, generativity, and ego integrity.
Erikson's stage 1. Trust versus Mistrust
Erikson's stage 2. Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
Erikson's stage 3. Initiative versus Guilt
Erikson's stage 4. Industry versus Inferiority
Erikson's stage 5. Identity versus Role Confusion
Erikson's stage 6. Intimacy versus Isolation
Erikson's stage 7. Generativity versus stagnation
Erikson's stage 8. Integrity versus Despair
Longitudinal method page 386 A research design in which the same group of individuals is studied repeatedly at many different points in time.
Gender roles pg.395 Traditional or stereotypical behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits that parents, peers, and society designate as masculine or feminine. Gender roles affect how we think and behave; formerly called sex roles.
Gender roles: social role theory The theory that emphasizes the importance of social and cultural influences on gender roles and states that gender differences between males and females arise from different divisions of labor.
Gender roles: cognitive developmental theory The idea that, as they develop mental skills and interact with their environments, children learn one set of rules for male behavior and another set of rules for female behavior.
Mod. 18 Kohlberg's stages Preconventional level 1: Self-Interest pg.412 Kohlberg’s lowest level of moral reasoning. It consists of two stages: At stage 1, moral decisions are based primarily on fear of punishment or the need to be obedient; at stage 2, moral
Preconventional level (cont.) pg. 412 reasoning is guided most by satisfaction of one’s self-interest, which may involve making bargains.
Conventional level 2: Social Approval pg. 412 Kohlberg’s intermediate level of moral reasoning. It consists of two stages: At stage 3, moral decisions are guided most by conforming to the standards of others we value; at stage 4, moral
Conventional level (cont.) reasoning is determined most by conforming to the laws of society.
Postconventional level 3: Abstract Ideas pg.412 Kohlberg’s highest level of moral reasoning, at which moral decisions are made after carefully thinking about all the alternatives and striking a balance between human rights and the laws of society.
Production of hormones - females pg. 408 Estrogen: One of the major female hormones. At puberty, estrogen levels increase eightfold and stimulate the development of both primary and secondary sexual characteristics.
Production of hormones - males pg. 408 Testosterone The major male hormone, which stimulates the growth of genital organs and the development of secondary sexual characteristics.
Female secondary sexual characteristics Sexual characteristics whose development in the female is triggered by the increased secretion of estrogen during puberty; they include the growth of pubic hair, development of breasts, and widening of hips.
Male secondary sexual characteristics Sexual characteristics whose development in the male is triggered by the increased secretion of testosterone during puberty; they include the growth of pubic hair, muscle development, and a change (deepening) of the voice.
Authoritarian parents pg. 413 Parents who attempt to shape, control, and evaluate the behaviors and attitudes of their children in accordance with a set standard of conduct, usually an absolute standard that comes from religious or respected authorities.
Authoritative parents pg. 413 Parents who attempt to direct their children’s activities in a rational and intelligent way. They are supporting, loving, and committed, encourage verbal give-and-take, and discuss their rules and policies with their children.
Permissive parents pg. 413 Parents who are less controlling and behave with a nonpunishing and accepting attitude toward their children’s impulses, desires, and actions.
Permissive parents (cont.) pg. 413 They consult with their children about policy decisions, make few demands, and tend to use reason rather than direct power.
Positivity bias pg. 415 Older adults pay less attention to negative information and more to positive information.
Self-esteem pg. 416 How much an individual likes himself or herself; it includes feelings of self-worth, attractiveness, and social competence.
Sternberg's theory: Passionate love page 419 A condition that is associated with continuously thinking about the loved one and is accompanied by warm sexual feelings and powerful emotional reactions.
Compansionate love page 419 A condition associated with trusting and tender feelings for someone whose life is closely bound up with one’s own.
Commitment page 419 In Sternberg’s triangular theory of love, the component of love associated with making a pledge to nourish the feelings of love and to actively maintain the relationship.
Gender roles pg. 418 Traditional or stereotypical behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits that parents, peers, and society designate as masculine or feminine. Gender roles affect how we think and behave; formerly called sex roles.
storing memories. It is sometimes referred to as our primitive, or animal, brain because the same structures are found in the brains of animals that are evolutionarily very old.
Mod. 13 Mod. 13 Two-factor theory "s" & "g" pg. 282 A theory of intelligence proposed by Spearman, according to which a general mental ability factor, g, represents a person’s ability to perform complex mental work, such as abstract reasoning and problem solving,
Two-factor theory (cont.) while many specific factors, s, represent a person’s specific mental abilities, such as mathematical, mechanical, and verbal skills. Thus, g is constant across tests, while s may vary across tests.
Gardner’s multiple-intelligence theory page 283 The idea that, instead of one kind of general intelligence, there are at least seven different kinds: verbal intelligence, musical intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, body
Gardner’s multiple-intelligence theory (cont.) movement intelligence, intelligence to understand oneself, and intelligence to understand others.
Triarchic theory page 283 The idea that intelligence can be divided into three ways of gathering and processing information (triarchic means “three”): using analytical or logical thinking skills that are measured by traditional intelligence tests; using problem-solving skills that
Triarchic theory (cont.) require creative thinking, the ability to deal with novel situations, and the ability to learn from experience; and using practical thinking skills that help a person adjust to, and cope with, his or her sociocultural environment.
Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale page 285 The world’s first standardized intelligence test, containing items arranged in order of increasing difficulty. The items measured vocabulary, memory, common knowledge, and other cognitive abilities.
Mental age The estimation of a child’s intellectual progress, which is calculated by comparing the child’s score on an intelligence test with the scores of average children of the same age.
Intellectual age The level at which a child performed at.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) Intelligence tests that are divided into various subtests. The verbal section contains a subtest of general information, a vocabulary subtest, and so forth. The
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) performance section contains a subtest that involves arranging pictures in a meaningful order, one that requires assembling objects, and one that involves using codes. The verbal and performance scores are combined to give a single IQ score.
Validity page 287 The extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure.
Reliability page 287 The extent to which a test is consistent: A person’s score on a test at one point in time should be similar to the score obtained by the same person on a similar test at a later point in time.
Normal distribution page 288 A bell-shaped frequency distribution curve. The scores are arranged symmetrically so that the vast majority fall in the middle range, with fewer scores near the two extreme ends of the curve.
Mental retardation page 288 Substantial limitation in present functioning, characterized by significantly subaverage intellectual functioning along with related limitations in two of ten areas, including communication, self-care, home living, social skills, and safety.
Mod. 14 Language A form of communication in which we learn and use complex rules to form and manipulate symbols (words or gestures) that are used to generate an endless number of meaningful sentences.
Language stages Four different periods in a child’s acquisition of language and grammar: babbling, single words, two-word combinations, and sentences. In each subsequent stage, a child displays new and more complex language skills.
1.Phonology, 2.Morphology, pg. 312 1. Rules specifying how we make the meaningful sounds used by a particular language. 2. A system that we use to group phonemes—consonants and vowels—into meaningful combinations of sounds and words.
3.Syntax, 4.Semantics pg.312 3.A set of rules that specifies how we combine words to form meaningful phrases and sentences. 4.A set of rules that specify the meanings of words or phrases when they appear in various sentences or contexts.
Concept page 306 A way to group or classify objects, events, animals,or people based on some features, traits, or characteristics or some common property they all share.
Exemplar model page 306 The idea that a person forms a concept of an object, event, animal, or person by defining or making a mental list of the essential characteristics of that particular thing.
Prototype theory pg. 306 The idea that we form a concept by first constructing a prototype of an object—that is, a mental image based on its average characteristics. Once we have formed a set of prototypes, we identify new objects by matching them against our prototypes.
Problem solving pg. 308 Searching for some rule, plan, or strategy in order to reach a certain goal that is currently out of reach.
Algorithms page 308 Rules that, if followed correctly, will eventually lead to the solution of a problem.
Heuristic page 308 Rules of thumb that reduce the number of operations or allow us to take shortcuts in solving problems.
Convergent thinking page 310 Beginning with a problem and coming up with a single correct solution.
Divergent thinking page 310 Beginning with a problem and coming up with many different solutions.
Functional fixedness page 308 A mental set characterized by the inability to see an object as having a function different from its usual one.
Mod. 09 Learning pg.195 A relatively permanent change in behavior (both unobservable mental events and observable responses) associated with specific stimuli and/or responses that change as a result of experience.
Learning: Three kinds Classical conditioning pg.196 A kind of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response that was originally produced by a different stimulus.
Operant conditioning pg.196 A kind of learning in which the consequences—reward or punishment—that follow some behavior increase or decrease the likelihood of that behavior’s occurrence in the future. Also called instrumental conditioning.
Cognitive perspective pg.196 The theory that an organism learns a predictable relationship between two stimuli such that the occurrence of one stimulus (neutral stimulus) predicts the occurrence of another (unconditioned stimulus). In other words, classical conditioning
Cognitive perspective (cont.) occurs because the organism learns what to expect. Formerly called information theory.
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) pg. 197 A stimulus that triggers or elicits some physiological response, such as salivation or eye blink.
Unconditioned response (UCR) pg. 197 An unlearned, innate, involuntary physiological reflex that is elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned stimulus (CS) pg. 197 A formerly neutral stimulus that has acquired the ability to elicit a response previously elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned response (CR) pg. 197 A response elicited by the conditioned stimulus; it is similar to the unconditioned response but not identical in magnitude or amount.
Generalization pg. 199 In classical conditioning, the tendency for a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response. Usually, the more similar the new stimulus is to the original conditioned
generalization (cont.) stimulus, the larger will be the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the situation in which an animal or a person emits the same response to similar stimuli.
Discrimination pg. 199 In classical conditioning, the tendency for some stimuli but not others to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the tendency for a response to be emitted in the presence of a stimulus that is reinforced but not in the presence of
Discrimination (cont.) unreinforced stimuli. In social psychology, specific unfair behaviors exhibited toward members of a group.
Extinction pg. 199 In classical conditioning, the reduction in a response when the conditioned stimulus is no longer followed by the unconditioned stimulus. As a result, the conditioned stimulus tends to no longer elicit the conditioned response. In operant
Extinction conditioning, the reduction in the operant response when it is no longer followed by the reinforcer.
Taste-aversion learning pg. 200 The association of a particular sensory cue (smell, taste, sound, or sight) with an unpleasant response, such as nausea or vomiting, resulting in future avoidance of that particular sensory cue.
Contiguity theory pg. 202 The view that classical conditioning occurs because two stimuli (the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus) are paired close together in time (are contiguous). Eventually, as a result of this contiguous pairing,
Contiguity theory the neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus, which elicits the conditioned response.
Created by: pinkeyym