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Group Dynamics 2


Additive Task Can be completed by taking the sum of individual members' inputs. Ex: moon tents
Ambiance Psychological reaction evoked by a setting
Big 5 Personality Factors and Leadership Look at chp 9 Powerpoint (slides 1 & 2)
Brainstorming A method for enhancing creativity in groups that calls for heightened expressiveness, postponed evaluation, quantity rather than quality, and deliberate attempts to build on earlier ideas.
Charismatic Leadership Influencing others through inspiration and setting an example to follow. Charisma refers to ascription of extraordinary or supernatural powers to a leader by the followers.
Coleadership Two or more individuals sharing the organizational, directive, and motivational duties of the leadership role.
Collective Information Sharing The tendency for groups to spend more time discussing information that all members know and less time examining information that only a few members know.
Compensatory Task Can be completed by averaging individual members' solutions Ex: making an estimate
Confirmation Bias The tendency to seek out information that confirms one's inferences rather than disconfirms them
Conjunctive Task Success cannot be achieved without contributions from all the members. Ex: climbing a mountain
Unitary Task Does not have subcomponents. Ex: pulling a rope
Divisible Task Contains subcomponents. Ex: football play
Contact Hypothesis The prediction that contact between the members of different groups will reduce intergroup conflict
Contingency Theory Any theory that suggests that the effectiveness of leaders depends on the interaction between their personal characteristics and the group situation.
Delphi Technique A group performance method that involves repeated assessment of members' opinions via surveys and questionnaires as opposed to face-to-face meetings.
Density-Intensity Hypothesis Suggests that emotions will become more extreme as the environment becomes more crowded.
Discontinuity Effect The markedly greater competitiveness in groups when interacting with other groups, relative to the competitiveness of individuals interacting with other individuals
Disjunctive Task A task or project that is completed when a single solution, decision, or recommendation is adopted by the group.
Double Standard Thinking Judging the actions and attributes of one's own group positively, but viewing those very same behaviors or displays negatively when the outgroup performs them.
Encounter Group A form of sensitivity training that provides individuals with the opportunity to gain deep interpersonal intimacy with other group members.
Ethnocentrism The belief that one's own tribe, region, or country is superior to other tribes, regions, or countries.
Foot-in-the-door Technique A method of influence in which the influencer first makes a very small request that the target will probably agree to, and then making bigger requests over time.
Great Man Theory Successful leaders possess certain characteristics that mark them for greatness and that such great leaders shape the course of history
Group Attribution Error Mistakenly assuming that specific group members' personal characteristics and preferences are similar to the preferences of the group to which they belong
Interpersonal Group Psychotherapy An approach to the treatment of psychological, behavioral, and emotional problems that emphasizes the therapeutic influence of interpersonal learning.
Factors Leading to Better Group Performance 1)KSA diversity 2)similarity in social category, values, and personality.
Factors Leading to Worse Group Performance 1)Social loafing, cognitive load/distraction, socialization, fighting, false security. 2)Collective Info Sharing 3)additive, conjunctive, and disjunctive non-eureka tasks. 4)Lack of planning
Group Polarization The tendency for members of a deliberating group to move to a more extreme position with the direction of the shift determined by the majority or average of members' predeliberation preferences.
Groupthink A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive ingroup, when the members' strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of actions.
Implicit Leadership Theory A cognitive explanation for leadership emergence that assumes members' implicit expectations and assumptions about leaders influence their appraisals of the leadership potential of their group members
Information Teams Ex: Apollo 13 Mission Control. Main function is to process information and make decisions/solutions to problems.
Production Teams Ex: Spinal Tap band. Main function is to create a good or service.
Intergroup Conflict A disagreement or confrontation between two or more groups and their members
Intragroup Conflict A disagreement or confrontation between members of the same group
Interpersonal Zones Distances that people maintain between one another. There are intimate, personal, social, public, and remote interpersonal zones.
Jigsaw Method Team learning technique. Assign topics to students, students with the same topics study it together, and then each group shares their topic with the other groups.
KSAs Knowledge, Skills, and abilities. KSA diversity
Leader Emergence Concerns the likelihood of a person to gain status as leader.
Predictors of Leader Emergence 1)Babble Effect -- talking a lot 2)Height & age (taller & older more likely) 3)Extraversion & Conscientiousness --Also look at chp 9 Powerpoint (slide 8)
Leader Effectiveness Concerns the performance of the leader (post emergence)
Predictors of Leader Effectiveness Extraversion and openness are the most significant personality factors for effectiveness. Neuroticism is negatively correlated with leader effectiveness. --Also look at chp 9 Powerpoint (slide 8)
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Leadership theory that emphasizes the relationship between a leader and a subordinate
Lewin's Law Individuals are more easily changed when they are part of a group
Linguistic Intergroup Bias Concerns the way group members talk about situations (successes & failures). Members will talk about ingroup success more favorably ("we are skilled")than outgroup success ("they were lucky")
Mediators Those who intervene between two persons who are experiencing conflict wit a view to reconciling them
Nominal Group In name only. Meets only the most minimal requirements to be considered a group.
Ohio State Model Comprehensive research program in 1940's. Determined that leader behavior could be categorized into one of two functions -- consideration or initiating structure
Overload Occurs when there is too much sensory information being processed simultaneously
Prisoner's Dilemma Game Type of research method that gives participants the option of cooperating or competing
Procedural Conflict Disagreement over the methods a group should use to complete basic tasks
Procedural Justice Refers to fairness in the way a decision is made
Psychodrama A therapeutic tool that stimulates active involvement in a group session through role playing. Developed by Jacob Moreno.
Realistic Conflict Theory Suggests that tensions arise when there are not enough resources to satisfy both groups, so these groups will be in conflict over those resources
Ringelmann Effect The tendency for people to become less productive when they work with others.
Risky Shift The tendency for groups to make riskier decisions than individuals.
Romance of Leadership Giving too much credit to a leader when there is success or placing too much blame on the leader when there is failure. Overestimating the importance of the leader.
Scapegoat Theory An explanation of intergroup conflict arguing that hostility caused by frustrating environmental circumstances is released by taking hostile action against members of other groups.
Self-Censorship A personal ban on expressing one's disagreements about the group's decisions.
Self-Disclosure The process of revealing personal intimate information about oneself to others.
Social Conflict Interpersonal discord that occurs when group members don't like each other.
Social Facilitation An improvement in task performance that occurs when people work in the presence of other people.
Social Loafing The reduction in individual effort exerted when people work in groups compared to when they work alone.
Free Riding Contributing less to a collective task when one believes that other group members will compensate for this lack of effort.
Sociofugal Not promoting social interaction
Sociopetal Promoting social interaction
Sources of Conflict 1)misperceptions & misattributions 2)divergent goals 3)divergent beliefs & values 4)divergent personalities 5)limited resources
Steiner Taxonomy of Tasks 1-Divisibility(Unitary & Divisible) 2-Quantity (Maximimizing) vs Quality (Optimizing) 3-Interdependence: Additive, Compensatory, Disjunctive, Conjunctive, Discretionary.
Steinzor Effect In a group, the most likely person to talk next is the person across from the person who just spoke.
Superordinate Goal A goal that can only be attained if the members of two or more groups work together by pooling their efforts and resources
Synomorphy A fit between a person and the environment that person works in.
Tit-for-tat (TFT) A bargaining strategy that begins with cooperation, but then imitates the other person's choice so that cooperation is met with cooperation and competition with competition.
T-group Training group. The type of group that Lewin studied.
Task Conflict Tension or disagreement about 1) the goal that should be set, 2) the process by which to reach that goal, and 3) what roles and responsibilities people should have
Characteristics of a Team Player Agreeableness and conscientiousness
Territoriality An individual and group-level phenomenon whereby people lay claim to a specific location. There are primary, secondary, and public territories.
Transactive Memory Information to be remembered is distributed to various members of the group who can then be relied upon to provide that information when it is needed.
Type A Personality Driven, achievement-oriented, often disagreeable, impatient, and critical of others
Type B Personality Laid back, relaxed, very agreeable.
Types of Leadership Lewin's -- Authoritarian, Democratic, Laissez-Faire. Also -- Transformational and transactional
Transformational Leadership An inspirational method of leading others that involves elevating one's own followers' motivation, confidence, and satisfaction, by uniting them in the pursuit of shared, challenging goals, and changing their beliefs, values, and needs.
Universality Recognizing that one is not the only one suffering; identification with others.
Ultimate Attribution Error Attributing negative actions performed by members of the outgroup to dispositional qualities and positive actions to situational, fluctuating circumstances
Vicarious Learning Learning by way of others, possibly by watching others interact in a therapy group
Groupthink -- Symptoms 1)pressure to go along 2)self-censorship 3)mindguards 4)illusions of morality & invulnerability
Groupthink -- Causes 1)cohesivenss 2)strong leadership 3)decisional stress (time pressure)
Created by: denoiami