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M & OB ch6-10

Management & Organizational Behavioral

Perception process by which individuals give meaning (reality) to their environment by organizing and interpreting their sensory impressions
Person Perception: Attribution Theory When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused
Distinctiveness shows different behaviors in different situations
Consensus response is the same as others to similar situation
Consistency responds in the same way over time
Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others
Self-serving Bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors
Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes
Halo Effect Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic
Contrast Effect Evaluation of a person’s characteristics are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics
Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs – a prevalent and often useful, if not always accurate, generalization
Motivation Theories: early Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y, Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory, McClelland’s Theory of Needs
Motivation Theories: contemporary Goal-Setting Theory, Bandura’s Self-efficacy Theory, Reinforcement Theory, Equity Theory, Expectancy Theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory (Self-Determination Theory)
Motivation The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence toward attaining a goal
3 key elements of motivation: 1.Intensity 2.Direction 3.Persistence hard a person tries 2.where effort is channeled -- is it toward or consistent with organizational goals? long a person can maintain effort
McGregor's Theory x and Y Two distinct views of human beings -Theory X (basically negative) -Theory Y (positive) Manager view of workers determined their behavior toward employees
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory Herzberg believed that the factors that lead to job satisfaction are different from the factors that lead to dissatisfaction -Dissatisfaction …… No dissatisfaction -No Satisfaction …… Satisfaction Dual as opposed to single continuum
McClelland's Theory of Needs 1.Need for Achievement (nAch) 2.Need for Power (nPow) 3.Need for Affiliation (nAff) 1.The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed 2.The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise 3.The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
Maslow's Hiearchy of Needs 1.Physiological 2.Safety 3.Social 4.Esteem 5.Self-Actualization
Locke's Goal-Setting Theory Relationship between goals and performance depends on: -Goal commitment/acceptance -Task characteristics (simple, well-learned) -Effectiveness of goals on complex tasks depends heavily on strategy development -Culture (best match is in North America)
Bandura's Self-Efficacy Theory An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task
Equity Theory Focuses on worker perceptions of the fairness of work outcomes and inputs (distributive justice)
3 kinds of Equity 1.Distributive 2.Procedural 3.Interactional 1.Fairness of outcome 2.Fairness of outcome process 3.Being treated with dignity & respect
Procedural Justice What factors enhance perceptions of procedural fairness? -Process control -Explanations -Consistent application of rules and policy -Freedom from bias -Accurate information
Expectancy Theory Motivation = E x I x V -Implication of multiplicative combination theory predicts motivation, not performance Performance also determined by: -skills and abilities -role perceptions -opportunities to perform
Job Rotation Periodic shifting of employee from one task to another
Job Enrichment The vertical expansion of a job by increasing the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of the work
Employee Involvement Definition: A participative process that uses employees’ input, intended to increase commitment to the organization’s success
Employee Involvement: Participative Management A process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors
Employee Involvement: Representative Participation Workers participate in organizational decision making through a small group of representative employees
Rewards Variable pay programs -Individual-level -Group-level -Organization-level Employee Recognition Programs
Variable Pay Programs Variable pay: pay plan that bases a portion of an employee’s pay on some individual, group, and/or organization measure of performance -Also known as Pay-for-Performance
Individual-level Programs 1.Piece-Rate Pay 2.Merit-based pay 3.Bonuses 1.Worker earns a fixed sum of money for each unit of production completed 2.Worker earns pay increases based on their performance appraisal ratings 3.Workers receive a lump sum based on individual performance accomplishments
Gainsharing Workers are paid for improvements in group productivity from one period to another. Employees in the “group” share monetary benefits resulting from productivity gains
Profit-Sharing Plans Distributes a portion of the organization’s profits to individual employees. Portion of profit each employee receives is based on a predetermined formula
Problem A perceived discrepancy between the current state of affairs and a desired state
Decision Choices made among alternatives developed from data perceived as relevant
3 Decision making models 1.Rational 2.Administrative (Bounded Rationality) 3.Intuitive
Rational Decision Making Framework -Problem Definition -Identify Decision Criteria -Weight Criteria -Develop alternatives -Evaluative alternatives -Select best alternative
Bounded Rationality (Administrative) Because of limited information processing capacity, individuals make decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all of their complexity
Intuition An unconscious process created from distilled experience and learning that results in quick decisions
Heuristics rules of thumb or shortcuts people use to make decisions
Escalation of commitment The tendency of decision makers to invest additional time, money, or effort into what are essentially bad decisions or unproductive courses of action that are already draining organizational resources
Overconfidence Bias -Believing too much in our own ability to make good decisions -More likely when people lack relevant skills/abilities -But experts fall victim to bias, too
Availability basing judgments on information that is readily available
Confirmation Bias Selective search for information that confirms past choices and discounting/ignoring information that contradicts choices
Intrinsic Task Motivation is the desire to do the job because it’s enjoyable
Groups: Defining Characteristics two or more people in social interaction, group has stable structure, members share common goal, members perceive themselves as being a group
Formal Groups created by management/authority 1.command groups 2.task groups
Informal Groups develop naturally/voluntarily 1.interest groups 2.friendship groups
Role A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit
Role perception group member/employee view of how he/she is supposed to act in a given situation
Role expectation how others believe a person should act in a given situation
Role Conflict A situation in which an individual is confronted with divergent role expectations
Norms Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members -Can be explicit or implicit
explicit norms written down rules
implicit norms not written down rules
Types of Norms 1.Performance 2.Appearance 3.Social arrangement 4.Allocation of resources hard to work, strategies to perform task/job 2.dress code arrangement in a meeting, who to seek out for advice 4.equity, equality, need
Group Development - Stage Model Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning
Forming Members join and begin the process of defining the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership
Storming Intragroup conflict occurs as individuals resist control by the group and disagree over leadership
Norming Close relationships develop as the group becomes cohesive and establishes its norms for acceptable behavior
Peforming A fully functional group structure allows the group to focus on performing the task at hand
Adjourning The group prepares to disband and is no longer concerned with high levels of performance
Social Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually
Cohesiveness Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and motivated to remain in group
Evaluation of Group Decision Making Effectiveness depends on: 1.Accuracy 2.Speed 3.Creativity 4.Degree of acceptance of final solution 1.Group generally more accurate than average individual in group, but less accurate than judgments of the most accurate individual 2.Individuals are superior 3.Groups tend to be more effective 4.Group decisions tend to better accepted
Groupthink - related to norms situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views
Problem-Solving Team Group of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, & the work environment
Self-Managed Work Team Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors
Cross-Functional Teams Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task
Virtual Tams Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal
Created by: NickUD
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