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Geography

Definitions

TermDefinition
Insolation solar constant 1367 w/m2 amount of solar radiation reaching the top of atmosphere
Scattering when gas molecules absorb and remit radiation changing direction of waves with out altering wavelength
Rayleigh scattering The scattering of light by particles in a medium, without change in wavelength. It accounts, for example, for the blue color of the sky shorter wave length greater scattering. smaller molecule more scattering of short waves.
Transmission process where a wave passes through a medium solids poor transmission clear glass good transmitter for short waves but poor transmitter for long waves water good transmitter for some depth atmosphere good for short waves and not for long waves
Refraction change in direction of wave when it enters an other medium. separates white light into its compounds
Albeda (whiteness) proportion of radiation reflected by a surface. used for white light only. 100% albedo = mirror 0% = black surface total absorption. dark colors have low light colors have high. earths average is 31%
Radiation a process where heat energy is emitted from a body. hotter the body more intense radiation and shorter radiation
Diffuse radiation insolation that is diffused by the clouds and atmosphere
conduction molecule to molecule transfer of heat energy. from high to low
convection vertical movement of heat
advection energy transfered through physical mixing of liquids or gasses involving strong horizontal motion sea wind, land wind.
Latent heat The heat energy that is absorbed or released in the phase change of water and is stored in one of the three states— ice, water, or water vapor; includes the latent heat of melting, freezing, vaporization, evaporation, and condensation.
sensible heat The heat measured with a thermometer; a measure of the concentration of kinetic energy from molecular motion. back and forth transfer of energy between air and surface
Fahrenheit 100 F is typical body temperature of coldest farenheit could measure in his lab
kelvin -273 absolute zero point at which all molecules have no kinetic energy
celcus determined by boiling point at sea level
specific heat capacity of a substance. water can hold 4 times more than land
4 driving forces in atmosphere gravity,pressure gradient, cariolis force,friction.
lapse rate The change of temperature per rise in elevation 6.4C/1000M
Dar dry adibatic rate the rate at which “dry” air cools by expansion (if ascending) or heats by compression (if descending). “Dry” refers to air that is less than saturated (relative humidity is less than 100%). The average DAR is 10 C°/1000 m (5.5 F°/1000 ft).
The moist adiabatic rate (MAR) is the rate at which an ascending air parcel that is moist The average MAR is 6 C°/1000 m (3.3 F°/1000 ft). This is roughly 4 C° (2 F°) less than the dry adiabatic rate. From this average, the MAR varies with moisture content and temperature and can
Created by: nathan0
 

 



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