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Pharm

Cardiovascular

TermDefinition
Digoxin (Lanoxin) Increases cardiac contractility. Drug for the patients at the end stage of CHF. Can take at home specifically right on the heart.
Diuretics Increase Na and H2O excretion
ACEI Decrease BP & blood Volume
Dobutamine, Dopamine, PDE Inhibitors Increase ventricular contractility
Clonidine (Catapres)..Kapvay ADHD Stimulates Alpha 2 receptors in CNS. Decreases NE release. Decrease HR and BP. Do not D/C abruptly.
Reserpine (serpasil) Depletes stores of catecholamines in neurons. ↓ TPR/BP ↓Co. Causes sedation, depression..
Propranol (Inderal) B1 + B2 blocker. Good PO
Metoprolol (Lopressor) B1 Blocker. Do NOT use in COPD + Diabetes
Atenolol (Tenormin) B1 Blocker. Long t 1/2
Labetolol (Normodyne):( B1 + B2 blocker. Alapha 1 blocker. ↓TPR/BP WITHOUT a reflex ↓ HR
Hydralazine (Apresoline) Directly reacts arterioles via ↓ Ca ++ flux in smooth muscles. ↓ TPR (↓ afterload). causes reflex increase HR. May be used in pregnancy**. SLE Lupus
Minoxidil (Loniten) Directly relaxes arteriols via ↓ Ca ++ flux in smooth muscle cells. ↓TPR/BP (↓afterload). Used for refractory HTN only.
Nitroprusside (Nipride) Converted to nitric oxide which is a vasodilator (↓ BOTH preload + afterload)Given IV in hypertensive crisis.
Prazosin (Minipress) alpha 1 blocker  causes vasodilation, ↓TPR Good for moderate HTN.
Verapamil (Isopten) Blocks Ca - flux in smooth muscle cells – vasodilation, ↓ TPR. Dizziness
Nifedipine (Procardia) Blocks Ca - flux in smooth muscle cells – vasodilation, ↓ TPR. Dizziness increase HR
Amlodipine(Norvasc) Blocks Ca - flux in smooth muscle cells – vasodilation, ↓ TPR. Dizziness. increase HR
Lisinopril (Prinivil) ACEI once a day dosing. dizziness
Losartan (Cozaar) Blocks angiotensin II; ARB. Decreases BP and salt and H2O load
Quinidine (Quinaglute Cin-Quin) Antiarrhythmic Drug. Blocks Na channels, ↓ automaticity of ectopic foci. Used for atrial + ventricular arrhythmias.
Lidocaine (L-Caine) Antiarrhythmic Drug. Blocks Na channels, ↓ automaticity of ectopic foci. Used for vent. arr's following MI of surgery. ONLY given IV
Propranolol (Inderal) Class 2 .↓ AV nodal conductance by ↑ AV node refractory period. Good for digoxin induced arr's.
Amiodarone (Cordarone) Class 3 Antiarrhythmic Drug ↑ duration of the action potential; given IV Given PO. Good for life-threatening vent arr's.
Verapamil (Isopten) Class 4 Antiarrhythmic Drug. ↓ AV nodal conduction. good for atrial arr's
Stable angina Chest pain caused by exercise/stress
Unstable angina More severe than stable angina; may develop at rest & cause myocardial damage
Variant (Prinzmetal's) angina Due to vasospasm of coronary vessels, may occur at rest, same time each day.
Nitroglycerin (Nitro-Bid, Nitrostat) Treat Angina. Vasodilator (↓ preload), dilates coronary arteries; relaxes peripheral veins.
Isosorbide dinitrate (Isordil) Treat Angina. Vasodilator (↓ preload), dilates coronary arteries; relaxes peripheral veins. Used for prophylaxis of angina (not stable).
Atenolol, Propranolol (Tenormin, Inderal) B blockers, ↓ work of heart NOT used for variant angina. Do not d/c abruptly!
Verapamil, Nifedipine (Isopten, Procardia) Amlodipine(Norvasc) Ca++ channel blockers, dilate coronary arteries. Good for all 3 types of angina; good for patients with low ejection fraction. Increase HR
Heparin Anticoagulant. Potentiates antithrombin III, blocking free thrombin. Prevents formation of new thrombi.
Enoxaparin (Lovenox) Form of heparin. Potentiates antithrombin III, blocking free thrombin. Shorter half life.
Bivalrudin (angiomax) Anticoagulant. Given IV to prevent clots in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty
Desirudin (lpravask) Anticoagulant. SubQ for DVT
Dabigatran Extilate (pradaxa) Anticoagulant. Thrombin inhibitor. No monitoring, rapid onset, few drug-food interactions, lower risk of bleeds, same dose works for all patients. Only approved for prevention of stroke in patients with a fibrillation.
Rivaroxaban (Xalrelto) Factor Xa inhibitor. No monitoring, rapid onset, fixed dose, lower bleeds risk, few Anticoagulant. drug or food interactions. Same use as above and for pts with hip/knee replacements.
Alteplase (Activase), Tenecteplase (TNKase) Binds to fibrin then activates plasminogen-plasmin. May be given by bolus injection--faster. Used for MI, stroke, Massive PE
Fibrinolytics These drugs dissolve clots. They are given after and acute MI or stroke.
Aspirin (ASA) Ibuprofen Antiplatelet Drugs. Inhibits cyclooxygenase. blocks formation of TXA2 which aggregates platelets. Can be used for unstable angina, MI, Stroke
Clopidogrel (Plavix) Ticlopidine (Ticlid) Antiplateled Drug Inhibits platelet. Phosphodiesterase; ↓ platelet aggregation. Super Aspirins given IV.
Atorvastatin (Lipitor) Simvastatin (Zocor)Rosuvastatin (Crestor) Hyperlipidemia. MOA that inhibits cholesterol.synthesis in liver → ↓ LDL-C in the serum. Up regulates LDL receptors leading to ↑ catabolic clearance of serum LDL-C.
Gemfibrozil (Lopid)Fenofibrate (Tricor) Hyperlipidemias. Fibric Acid Derivatives that ↑ lipoprotein lipase activity. ↓ lipolysis in adipose tissue and ↓ hepatic uptake of fatty acids.
Cholestyramine (Questran) Hyperlipidemias.Bile Acid Sequestrants. Anion-exchange resins:  bind to bile acids in intestine → fecal excretion. Indicated for lowering LDL-C but will increase triglycerides VLDL-C initially.
Ezetimibe (Zetia) Hyperlipidemias. Block cholesterol absorption. Indicated for lowering LDL-C will decrease triglycerides and VLDL-C a little. High fat foods will pass right through you.
Nicrontini Acid (niacin) Hyperlipidemias. Inhibits lipolysis in adipose tissue; ↓ hepatic production of VLDL → ↓ serum triglycerides and LDL-C.
Cyanocobalamin For B12 deficiency Anemia. Due to decrease intrinsic factor, gastrectomy, or vegetarian die.
Folic Acid Used for Folic acid-deficiency Anemia. Seen in alcoholics and molnourished
Epoetin alpha (Epogen, Procrit) Stimulates RBC production.  Used in renal disease, HIV, Infection, and patients receiving chemotherapy.
Filgrastim (Neupogen) ↑neutrophil production.  Used for neutropenia (severe cyclic, chronic), especially that seen in chemo patients.  SE of note is bone pain.
Saragramostim (GMCSF, Leukine): ↑ neutrophils, other granulocytes, and macrophages.  Used following bone marrow transplant.
Thrombopoetin (Oprelvekin, Neumega): Stimulates platelet production.  
Created by: whitneydpugh