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STMG Ch. 4

Western Management Ideas

QuestionAnswer
What does the Classical Management Approach focus on? Developing universal principles for use in various management situations
What does the Behavioural Management Approach focus on? Human needs, the work group, and the roles of social factors in the workplace
What does Qualitative Management Focus on? Applying mathematical techniques for the management of problem solving
What do Modern Management Approaches focus on? The systems view of organisations and contingency thinking in dynamic and complex environments
What do Classical Approaches assume? That people are rational
What are the three major branches of the Classical Approach? Scientific management, Administrative principles, and Bureaucratic organisation
Under the Classical Management Approach, what branch of thought emphasises careful selection and training of workers and supervisory support? Scientific Management
What are the four guiding action principles of scientific management? 1. Develop a science for every job 2. Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job 3. Carefully train workers to do the job and cooperate with the job science 4. Support workers by planning and streamlining the way they go about jobs
Who founded Scientific Management? Frederick W. Taylor
What is 'motion study'? The science of reducing a task to its basic physical motions
Frank & Gillian Gilbreth were influential in which branch of Classical Management? Scientific
Who founded Administrative Principles management? Henri Favol
Fayol's managerial principles include which three principles? the scalar chain principle, the unity of command principle, and unity of direction principle
What principle is this: "there should be a clear and unbroken line of communication from the top to the bottom of the organisation"? scalar chain principle
What principle is this: "each person should receive orders from only one boss"? unity of command principle
What principle is this? "one person should be in charge of all activities that have the same performance objectives"? unity of direction principle
Define the scalar chain principle? there should be a clear and unbroken line of communication from the top to the bottom of the organisation
Define the unity of command principle? each person should receive orders from only one boss
Define the unity of direction principle? one person should be in charge of all activities that have the same performance objectives
Aside from Favol, who influenced Administrative Principles management? Mary Parker Follet
What Is a bureaucracy? A rational and efficient form of organisation, founded on logic, order, and legitimate authority
Who founded Bureaucratic Organisation? Max Weber
What are some of the defining characteristics of bureaucracy? A clear division of labour, a clear hierarchy or authority, formal rules and procedures, impersonality, and careers based on merit.
Excessive paperwork, slowness in handling problems, rigidity in the face of shifting client or customer needs, resistance to change, and employee apathy are all disadvantages to what branch of classical management? Bureaucracy
What are behavioural approaches to management? Management approaches focussed on the human side of the workplace, also seen as the human resource approach to management
What are the major branches of Behavioural Management Approaches? The Hawthorne Studies, Maslow's Theory of Needs, Theory X & Y
Who commissioned the Hawthorne Studies? Western Electric Company, 1924
Who led the Hawthorne Studies? Elton Mayo, Harvard grad & Australian psychologist
What two factors were seen to have special importance in the Hawthorne Studies? Group atmosphere and participative supervision
In the Hawthorne Studies, what was deduced about group atmosphere? Groups can have both positive and negative effects of motivation and performance
What is the Hawthorne Effect? The tendency of people who are singled out for special attention to perform as expected
What Behavioural Management Approach contributed to the emergence of the human relations movement? The Hawthorne Studies
What was the human relations movement based upon? Suggests that managers using good human relations will achieve productivity (1950's - 1960's)
What is organisational behaviour? The study of individuals and groups in organisations
What movement influenced the emergence of organisational behaviour studies? The human relations movement
What are needs? Unfulfilled physiological or psychological desires
Unfulfilled physiological or psychological desires are what? Needs
What are the two underlying principles in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs? Deficit Principle and Progression Principle
What principle states that "A satisfied need is not a motivator of behaviour"? Deficit Principle (Maslow)
What principle states that "A need at any level only becomes activated once the next-lower-level need is satisfied"? Progression Principle
What are the Five Levels of Human Needs as defined by Maslow? Physiological, Safety, Social, Self-Esteem, and Self-Actualisation needs
What is a weakness of Maslow's Theory of Human Needs? Some people have different needs and do not gain fulfilment from certain levels of needs (they might skip a level, hence contradicting the Progression Principle)
Who created Theory X and Theory Y? Douglas MacGregor
What does Theory X assume? That people dislike work, lack ambition, are irresponsible and prefer to be led
What does Theory Y assume? That people are willing to work, and accept responsibility, are self-directed and creative
Which of MacGregor's theories assumes that people dislike work, lack ambition, are irresponsible and prefer to be led? Theory X
Which of MacGregor's theories assume that people are willing to work, and accept responsibility, are self-directed and creative? Theory Y
Which behavioural theorist proposed the concept of 'self-fulfilling prophecies?' MacGregor
What are self-fulfilling prophecies? What occurs when people act in ways that confirm another's expectations
What concept is similar to the Hawthorne Effect? the concept of Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
How do managers with Theory X assumptions act? In a 'command-and-control' fashion
How do manager with theory Y assumptions act? In a 'participative' way
Which of MacGregor's theories in consistent with developments in the new workplace? Theory Y
How do Management Science Approaches operate? They use mathematical techniques to analyse and solve mathematical problems
What term can be used interchangeably with "management science"? 'Operations Research'
Which Management Approach assumes that mathematical techniques can be used to improve managerial decision making and problem solving? Quantitative
What Management Approach uses mathematical forecasting to make predictions useful for the planning process? Quantitative
What are the six management science applications? Mathematical forecasting, inventory modelling, linear programming, queuing theory, network models, and simulation
What does mathematical forecasting do? Helps make future predictions that are useful in the planning process
What does inventory modelling do? Helps control inventories by mathematically establishing how much to order and when
Linear programming is used to do what? Calculate how best to allocate scarce resources among competing uses
Queuing Theory helps do what? Allocate service personnel or workstations to minimise customer waiting time and service cost
What Management Science application breaks large tasks into smaller components to allow for better analysis, planning, and control of complex projects? Network models
What does the Management Science application 'simulation' do? Makes model of problems so that different solutions can be tested
What must mathematical solutions be supported by> Good managerial judgement and an appreciation of the human factor
What schools of thought established the foundations for Modern Management? Classical, human resource/behavioural, and quantitative schools of thought
What does the modern management approach recognise? That no one theory or model applies universally in all situations or to the exclusion of the others
Which Management Approach believes that people are complex and variable? The Modern Approach
What are the key foundations of the Modern Management Approach? The systems view of organisation and contingency thinking
What is a system? A collection of interrelated parts working together for a common purpose
A smaller component of a larger system is a...? Subsystem
___________ transform resource inputs into product or service outputs/outcomes. Open systems
What does contingency thinking do? Tries to match management practises with situational demands
A ____ ________ is the sequence of activities that transform materials into finished products value chain
What is Theory Z? A management framework emphasising long-term employment, slower promotions, more lateral job movements, attention to career planning and development, use of consensus decision making, teamwork and employee involvement
What type of organisation continually changes and improves using the lessons of experience? A learning organisation
The 21st century manager must be a ________ strategist, a master of __________, an effective __________, and an inspiring _________. global/technology/politician/leader
Created by: ginamaye