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Pharm 5, and 6

sympathetic and parasympathetic

PNS is composed of 12 pairs of cranial and how many pairs of spinal nerves? 31 pairs of spinal nerves
PNS contains what type of nerves? Both somatic and visceral nerves.
What is the Somatic division? Cranial and spinal nerves that innervate skeletal muscle.
What are skeletal nerves classified as? Voluntary; they are under conscious control.
What is another name for the ANS? visceral division
What type of muscles do the autonomic nerves innervate? Cardiac and smooth muscle found in visceral organs and glands.
The visceral division is divided into what 2 divisions? parasympathetic and sympathetic
When is the sympathetic division more active? during periods of increased energy expenditure and stress.
What neurotransmitter do the sympathetic nerves release? Norepinephrine at the post ganglionic site.
What is a neurotransmitter? Chemical messengers
What are the receptor sites that accept NE and EP called? adrenergic receptor sites.
What are some of the functions of NE (Norepinephrine)? Affects cardiovascular system ^ HR, ^BP, cognition, thinking process ability to make decisions, arousal, ability to wake, to be awakened
What happens when NE levels are high? anxiety, schizophrenia, manias.
What happens when NE levels are low? depression
When is the parasympathetic division more active? During rest, digestion and elimination of waste products
What neurotramistter is released by the parasympathetic nerves? acetylcholine or ACH.
What are the receptor sites that accept ACH called? cholinergic receptor sites.
Some of the functions of ACH are: affects sleep, arousal, ability to feel pain, movement (motor), memory
What happens when Ach levels are high? Depression.
What happens when Ach levels are low? Parkinson’s disease.
What are some effects of SNS? Vasoconstriction of arteries, ^ HR, increased contractile of the heart, decreased GI motility and secretions; dilated pupils, bronchodilation, urinary bladder relaxation, urinary sphincter contraction.
The main neurotransmitters of SNS are NE and EPI.
List the differences between NE and EPI NE – will not activate beta 2 receptors sites, and EPI – will stimulate alpha, Berta 1, Beta 2 receptor sites.
What neurotransmitters will adrenergic receptors accept? NE and EPI.
Adrenergic receptors are classified as what? alpha-adrenergic or beta-adrenergic.
Where are Alpha-adrenergic receptors found? mainly on smooth muscle membranes (blood vessels).
Where are Beta-adrenergic receptors found? on smooth (Beta-2) and cardiac (Beta-1) muscle membranes.
What are the 2 main classes of drugs that affect the SNS? sympathomimetics and sympatholytics.
What is the difference between the sympathomimetics, and sympatholytics? Sympathomimetics (mimic) produce effects that are similar to stimulating of the SNS, Sympatholytics block the actions of the SNS.
How are sympatholytics classified? as either alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs or beta-adrenergic blocking drugs.
Alpha blockers compete with what? NE for the binding to the alpha-adrenergic receptors.
What does NE normally do to adrenergic receptors? Activates the adrenergic receptors (produce sympathetic response) by constructing smooth muscle.
What are alpha blockers used for? to treat hypertension.
What are some adverse effects of alpha blockers? Dizziness, confusion, lethargic, N/V,
MOA of sympathomimetics produce effects that are similar to simulating the SNS.
The Beta blockers are used for what condition? hypertension by decreasing the rate, force of contraction and impulse conduction of the heart.
What are the beta blockers divided into? nonselective beta-blockers and selective beta-blockers.
What is the difference between non-selective beta blockers and selective beta-1 blockers? Non-selective block Beta 1 and Betat 2 receptors, whereas, selective Beta only targets betat 1.
Are there any specific therapeutic indications for blocking the beta-2 receptors? No.
What are some adverse effects of beta blockers? N/V, bradycardia, CHF, cardiac arrest, hypotension
What type of drugs affect carbohydrate and lipid metabolism? Beta-adrenergic blocking drugs.
How are side effects of beta blockers relate to diabetics? Beta-blockers may affect insulin and glucose levels because it affects carbohydrate metabolism. When carb metabolism is affected the glucose production is reduced, therefore less glucose is in the blood stream.
MOA the beta blockers drugs? bind to beta-adrenergic recptors found in smooth and cardiac muscle membranes and compete with EPI and NE for binding to beta-adrenergic receptors.
MOA alpha blockers compete with NE for binding to the alpha-adrenergic receptors. alpha-adrenergic receptoss are located on smooth muscle membranes (blood vessels) it blocks NE.
MOA of sympatholytics block the actions of the SNS, EPI and NE
sympatholytics are classified as either alpha-adrenergic blockign or beta-adrenergic blocking drugs.
Dopamine affects movement (motor), decision making, cardiovascular system (boots heart rate)
When levels of dopamine are low Parkinson's and depression
When dopamine levels are high mania, schizophrenia
Serotonin affects sleep, arousal, libido, appetite, mood, judgment, anger,
when serotonin levels are high sever anxiety
when serotonin levels are low depression,
MOA of paraympathomimetic cholinergic drug that mimics stimulation of PNS, acts like ACH. causes diarrhea
MOA parasympatholytic anticholinergic drug that decreases activity of PNS; blocks Ach, causes constipation
MOA of anticholinergic inhibits the activity of PNS; does not affect SNS directly.
What neurotransmitters cause psychosis or schizophrenia when they are high? NE, Epi, dopamine
to increase urination, what meds would be Rx the best would be parasympathomimetic; cholinergic, sympatholytic
5 organs where smooth muscle is found bladder, lungs, uterus, intestine, heart
to increase BP what meds would be Rx? best Alpha adronergic drug; norepinephrine, bet, sympathomimetic, anticholinegic, parasympatholyic.
Why would an alpha blockers be administered? to lower BP without affecting heart directly.
the difference between cholinergic and anticholinergic cholinergics activates the PNS, anticholinergic inhibits the PNS.
Cholinergic overdose sweating, ^urination and frequency, bradycarida, pupil construction
Created by: juanaortiz76



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