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Inclusive Ed B

All about Inclusion of children with Special Needs in Schools

What does the term "special needs" refer to? The needs of an individual or the system that should be addressed.
What are "special needs" caused by? Barriers within the person himself,the curriculum, the learning center,the system of education and the broader social context.
If a learner has barriers to learning, what should be done in order for the learner to make optimal progress? These barriers should be decreased, removed or prevented.
When do you refer to "impairments"? When referring to persons with physical and / or physiological impairments.
What is a sensory impairment? These occur when one of the senses is affected. Usually visual and aural.
What is a physical impairment? A person whose external physical appearance or functioning is affected.
What is a mental or intellectual impairment? This renders affected persons mentally less capable than the average so that they find it much more difficult to comprehend and to learn.
What is a multiple impairment? When a person has more than one impairment, example. Mentally and physically impaired.
What does the phrase "physiological impairments" refer to? An impairment in the functions of the body. Chronic illnesses like Cancer and Aids.
How could developmental problems manifest? -A total delay -A delay in one or more aspects of development
Define "Underachievement". This means that a learner does not do as well as one would expect of someone with his or her intellectual ability.
Define "poor achievers". These students are trying their best,but because they lack good mental abilities, they cannot be expected to show better results.
Define "Disadvantaged learners". Those learners whose education has fallen behind as a result of social, economic or political circumstances.
Define "At-risk learners". Those learners that do not normally have a chance of making a success of their school career.
Describe examples of behavioural problems. -The learner becomes aggressive. -The learner shows regression. -The learner becomes shy and withdrawn.
True or false. The term "learners who experience barriers to learning" is an all-inclusive concept. True
In accordance with the manifestation causes of the barriers to learning, which three groups can be distinguished? Learners who experience barriers to learning because of: -intrinsic factors -extrinsic factors -both factors
What is intrinsic factors? These are physical, physiological and personality factors.
What is extrinsic factors? These are factors influenced by the school, environment, education, language, culture and job prospects.
Name 7 factors the NCSNET / NCESS report identified as causing barriers to learning: Socioeconomic barriers; Discriminating attitudes; inflexible curriculum; Disability; Language and communication; Inaccessible and unsafe environment; Lack of parental involvement.
Define the word "syndrome". A group of symptoms associated with a specific condition.
What is another word for "genetic"? Hereditary.
What does "prenatal" mean? Before birth.
What does "perinatal" mean? During birth.
What does "postnatal" mean? After birth.
What forms of physical impairment are directly related to brain damage? epilepsy; cerebral palsy; learning impairments (dyslexia or dyscalculia); certain forms of: intellectual-; hearing-; and/or visual impairment.
Name some factors associated with education and school, which can also give rise to barriers to learning. (6) Poor teaching; Incomplete participation on the part of learners; Inappropriate study material; Inefficient school organisation; Crowded classrooms; At-risk schools.
What is Down's syndrome? It is an oddity of genes in the twenty first chromosome. Children with DS usually have a slow rate of learning and other physical symptoms. AKA Children of heaven, because of they are usually lovable persons.
A young learner with Down's syndrome may have motor skill problems, like? hypotonia ; shorther limbs; and reduced stamina
A young learner with Down's syndrome may have visual perception problems, like? Difficulty ordering; reversal of images; random visual
What is hypotonia? Low muscle tone
What are the implications and strategies that can be used in relation with Hypotonia in Down's Syndrome learners. Handwriting may be oversized or undersized and light/sketchy. = Use alternate tasks for recording, eg cut and paste; multiple choice.
What are the implications and strategies that can be used in relation with Shorter Limbs in Down's Syndrome learners. Manual skills may be less accurate and completed more slowly. = Use large/ adapted equipment.
What are the implications and strategies that can be used in relation with Reduced Stamina in Down's Syndrome learners. Slow drawing up tables, charts, etc. = Reduce the amount of work expected. Provide already recorded information.
What is autism? Autism, or autistic syndrome, is a neurological problem which interferes with a person's ability to communicate with other people. The term autism literally means aloneness.
What is autism and when does it appear? Autism is a developmental disorder that appears in the first 3 years of life, and affects the brain's normal development of social and communication skills.
What are the "triad of impairments" that Autistic children are known to be affected by? Social interaction; Language and communication; Behaviour and imagination
Describe how a young learner's quality of development with regard to SOCIAL INTERACTION as part of the Traid of Impairments, can give a teacher an indication that the learner is Autistic. Little awareness of the existence of others; Inappropriate social contact; prefers to play alone; Dislike being touched; Difficulty making friends; Forms special bonds with parents or caregivers.
Describe how a young learner's quality of development with regard to LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION as part of the Traid of Impairments, can give a teacher an indication that the learner is Autistic. Speech development may be abnormal, delayed or absent; Acts deaf; Facial expressions are unusual or absent; Repetition of words and phrases; Can't adapt to the needs of a listener; Incorrect use of words and phrases; Production of speech may be unusual.
Describe how a young learner's quality of development with regard to BEHAVIOUR AND IMAGINATION as part of the Traid of Impairments, can give a teacher an indication that the learner is Autistic. Limited imaginitive play; Focus on minor details around them; Copies imagination of TV; Cannot be influenced by suggestions; Rigid play; Unusual habits like rocking;Inappropriate use of toys in play; Tantrums for no reason; Physical over/under activity.
Name Eye conditions that cause Visual barriers to learning. Refraction errors; Cataracts; Strabismus (Squint); Nystagmus; Albinism; Trachoma; Conjunctivitis; Glaucoma; Macular degeneration; Retinitis pigmentosa.
What is Refraction errors? Refraction refers to the bending of light rays passing through different media of density. Errors in the bending of light rays can cause one of the following conditions: *Myopia; *Hyperopia; *Astigmatism.
What is Myopia? Nearsightedness; Light rays do not focus on the macula but in front of it. This means that the learners can see objects close to them clearly, but cannot perceive those at a distance clearly.
What is Hyperopia? Farsightedness; Light rays fall on a point behind the macula. Learners can see well at a distance but their close vision is poor.
What is Astigmatism? Light rays do not fall on the macula but behind and in front of it. The learners find it difficult to distinguish between round letters like B & D; or G & D; or R & S.
How can refraction errors be rectified? By spectacles.
What is a Cataract? A clouding of the lens of the eye.
What is Cataracts caused by? By an injury to the eye or hereditary conditions.
How can Cataracts be rectified? The cloudy lens or lenses can be removed, after which learners have to wear thick spectacle lenses to focus clearly on objects. In older learners, an artificial lens may be transplanted in the place of the original lens.
What is Strabismus? When there is an abnormality in the functioning of some of the eye muscles, the two eyes do not focus simultaneously on an object.This means that the affected eye is pulled to one side and does not look straight at objects.
How does Strabismus (squint)affect your eyes? It causes double vision since each eye sees separately. The brain receives two images but suppresses the weaker one, the weaker eye becomes lazy and disused and loses it's function.
How can Strabismus be rectified? Spectacles can help the eye muscles to learn to work together. The lazy eye may also be forced to look by covering the healthy eye. In more severe cases, the eye muscles may be corrected in an operation.
What is Nystagmus? This is an involuntary oscillation (to-and-fro movement) of the eye especially when the child concentrates on near vision activities. This movement can be rhythmical or jerky. It causes serious reading problems.
What conditions is Nystagmus usually accompanied by? Refraction errors or albinism.
How can Nystagmus be rectified? It cannot be corrected.
What is albinism? It is caused by a lack of pigment throughout the body and is observable from birth.
How does albinism manifest in a learner? The presence of white skin, white hair and even white eyebrows and eye lashes. They eyes and the pupil are reddish.
How does albinism affect a learner? The child's eyes and skin are extremely sensitive to light and the child is severely photophobic.
How do you assist a learner with Albinism? They should sit in a darker place in the classroom, away from the windows. They should wear long sleeved clothes. And they should wear corrective sunglasses.
What is Trachoma? An eye disease caused by a micro-organism and is very infectious.
How does Trachoma affect a learner? They become photophobic and slowly become blind. Even after the infection clears up, but damage has already been done to the cornea.
Can Trachoma be rectified? Only if it is treated in its earliest stages.
What is Conjunctivitis? This is an infection of the membrane covering the surface of the eye.
Created by: Micksi
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