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Pharm Ch. 45

Antineoplastic

QuestionAnswer
What is antineoplastic mean? Against new tissue growth like cancers
Why do cancer cells grow uncontrollably? 1. they do not have growth control mechanisms 2. Do not have positive physiologic fx
What is a cancerous primary legion? Original site of growth
What is metastasis? Uncontrolled cell growth, secondary lesion in new, remote part of body
What is neoplasm? Mass of new cells, tumor
What two types of tumors? benign, malignant
What are three types of cancer? 1.Carcinomas- arise from epithelial cells "epi car" 2.Sarcomas- from connective tissue ex: 3.Kaposi's sarcoma-Lymphomas/Leukemias- circulating tumors or hematologic malignancies
What are paraneoplastic syndromes? Alongside with cancer cachexia- most common, fatigue, fever, wt loss
Chemotherapy is subdivided in two groups 1.cell cycle-nonspecific (CCNS) 2.cell cycle-specific (CCS)
How do CCS-cell cycle specific drugs work on cancer? Cytotoxic- hurt cell at certain phase
What is important to know about chemotherapy? Narrow therapeutic window combo better drug resistance adverse effect dose limiting adverse effects
Which non cancerous cells do chemotherapy effect the most? Rapid growing like hair follicles, GI tract, bone marrow
Name 5 types of cancer tumors that cell cycle specific drugs attack antimetabolites mitotic inhibitors alkaloid topoisomerase 2 inhibitors Topoisomerase I inhibitor Antineoplastic enzymes
How do antimetabolites work 1.falsely substituting for purines, pyrimidines, or folic aci 2.inhibiting critical enzymes involved in the synthesis or function of these compounds
what is example of antimetabolite 1.Folate Antagonists(DNA only) 2.Purine Antagonists 3.Pyrimidine Antagonists All effect DNA and RNA
Antimetabolite Adverse Effects Tumor Lysis Syndrome-includes hyperphosphatemia, hyperlalemia, hypoclcemia, hyperuricemia
Antineoplastic Toxicity Neurologic, Cardiovascular, Pulmonary, Hepatobiliary, GI, Genitourinary, Dermatologic, Ocular, Otic, Metabolic
What do Mitotic Inhibitors Do? Work before/during Mitosis, CCS
What natural plants are mitotic inhibitors derived from? Periwinkle, Yew, Mayapple(Mandrake)
Mitotic Inhibitor & Etoposide Extravasation Antidote Hyaluronidase
Antimetabolites drugs Folate -methotrexate Purine - Cladribine, Fludarabine Pyrimidine-Capecitabine, Fluorouracil, Gemcitabine, Cytarabine
Mitotic Inhibitor Drugs Etoposide, Paclitaxel, Vincristine
What do Topisomerace 2 inhibitor do? CCS, hurt DNA S phase
Topisomerace 2 inhibitor Adverce Effects Bone Marrow Suppression Irinotecan -odd effect -Cholinergic Diarrhea (delayed, 2-10 days later)
Topisomerace 2 inhibitor Drugs Irinotecan, Topotecan
Created by: mary_ray