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Brain & Neurons

Psychology Ch. 2

In its resting state, what charge is the neuron? slightly negative
How does the neuron prevent positive and negative ions from mixing between the outside and inside of the cell? cell membrane is selectively permeable
How does a neural reaction begin? The terminal buttons of neuron A are stimulated and release neurotransmitters into the synapse
What is the threshold? the minimum amount of neurons received to start the action potential, or "neural firing"
How does the neuron change to start the action potential? cell membrane of neuron B becomes permeable, positive ions rush into the cell
What's the action potential? the change in charge spreading down the length of the neuron; a.k.a. electric message firing
What happens when the action potential reaches the axon terminals? the neuron releases its neurotransmitters across the synapse to the other neuron
What is the process in which excess neurons are reabsorbed into the axon terminal of neuron A? reuptake
Neuron firing has the all-or-none principle. What is this? The neuron either fires completely or it doesn't at all, but the intensity of the firing doesn't change if the firing happens. It will always fire completely.
What does an excitatory neurotransmitter do? excites the next cell into firing
What does an inhibitory neurotransmitter do? prevent the next cell from firing
Will the amount and type (excitatory or inhibitory) of neurotransmitters received on the receptor sites make a difference in whether or not the neuron will fire? yes
What direction does a neuron fire? dendrite to axon terminals
What kind of neuron takes information from the senses to the brain? sensory neuron
What kind of neuron, in the brain or spinal chord, take and send messages elsewhere in the brain or on to sensory neurons? interneuron
What kind of neuron takes information from the brain to the rest of the body? motor neuron
In what order would the different kind of neurons act in? sensory, interneuron, motor neuron
What makes up the CNS (central nervous system)? brain & spinal chord
What does the spinal chord do? transmits information from the rest of the body to the brain
What makes up the PNS (peripheral nervous system)? all nerves not encased in bone
What is the somatic nervous system for? voluntary muscle movements
What is the autonomic nervous system for? automatic functions of the body; control response to stress
Which nervous system would destress the body, sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system? parasympathetic nervous system
Which nervous system would prepare the body to deal with stress, sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system? sympathetic nervous system
I accelerate some functions such as heart rate and blood pressure, and I conserve resources needed for a quick response by slowing down other functions like digestion. Am I the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system? sympathetic nervous system
I slow down the body after a stress response. Am I the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system? parasympathetic nervous system
What is an inherent (innate) response we have to a stimulus called? reflex
What is lesioning? removal or destruction of part of the brain
What are ways to study the brain? noticing changes after accidents, noticing changes after lesioning, EEG (electroencephalograph), CAT (computerized axial tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), PET scans (positron emission tomography), and fMRI (functional MRI)
How does EEG (electroencephalogram) work & what does it do? Detects the types of brain waves produced during different stages of consciousness for generalizing about brain function
How does the CAT (computerized axial tomography) work & what does it do? uses X-ray cameras to rotate around the brain & combine all the pictures into a detailed 3D picture of the brain's structure
How does the MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) work & what does it do? uses magnetic fields to measure the density & location of the brain material to create detailed images of brain structure
How does the PET (positron emission tomography) work & what does it do? measures amount of certain chemical (ex. glucose) used by the brain to see what areas are most active during certain tasks. more used, higher the activity
How does the fMRI (functional MRI) work & what does it do? combines techniques of MRI & PET scans to show details of brain structure with information about the brain flow and tying brain structure to brain activity during cognitive tasks
What does the hindbrain do? controls basic biological functions that keep us alive
What does the hindbrain consist of? medulla, pons, cerebellum
What does the medulla do? controls blood pressure, heart rate, & breathing
What does the pons do? controls facial expressions
What does the cerebellum do? coordinates some habitual muscle movements & for balance
What does the midbrain do? coordinates simple movements with sensory information
What does the reticular formation do? controls general body arousal and ability to focus our attention
What does the forebrain do? controls what we think of as thought and reason
What does the forebrain consist of? thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus
What does the thalamus do? receives sensory signals coming up the spinal chord and sending them to appropriate areas in the rest of the forebrain
What does the hypothalamus do? controls several metabolic functions like body temperature, sexual arousal. controls biological rhythms
What's the role of the amygdala? experiences of emotion
What's the role of the hippocampus? memories, esp. new ones
What is the grey wrinkled surface of the brain that is largely densely packed neurons? cerebral cortex
What are specialized functions of the left hemisphere? language, sensory messages, controls right half of body, logical thought
What are the specialized functions of the right hemisphere? perception, spatial thinking, abstract or intuitive thought, controls left half of body
What is a split brain? the separation of the two hemispheres by cutting of the corpus callosum
What are association areas & their roles? any area of the cerebral cortex that isn't associated with receiving sensory information or controlling muscle movements; human thoughts and behaviors
What is the role of the prefrontal cortex in the frontal lobe? directing thought processes, foreseeing consequences, pursuing goals, maintaining emotional control
What is the role of Bronca's area? control of muscles involved in producing speech
What is the role of the motor cortex? sending signals to muscles, controlling voluntary movements
What is the role of the sensory cortex? receiving of incoming touch sensations from the rest of teh body
What is the role of the occipital lobe? interpretation of messages from our eyes in our visual cortex
What is the role of the temporal lobe? process of sound sensed by ears: sound waves processed by ears, turned into neural impulses, interpreted in auditory cortex
What does brain plasticity mean? after damage to a part of the brain, dendrites might be able to make new connections in another part of the brain that would be able to take over the functions of the damaged part
Which has more plasticity, a young brain or an old brain? young brain
What's the endocrine system? system of glands that secrete hormones
What do the adrenal glands do? produce adrenaline to signal body to prepare for fight or flight
Created by: cobra18
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