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Module 9 (Thorax)

Anatomy of the thorax

QuestionAnswer
True ribs (#s) 1-7
False ribs (#s) 8-10 + 11 and 12
Floating ribs (#s) 11 + 12
Manubrium articulates with... clavicle and rib 1`
Manubriosternal joint articulates with... rib 2
Body of the sternum articulates with... ribs 2-6
Xyposternal joint articulates with... rib 7
What type of joints are the manubriosternal and xyposternal joints? (CT) fibrous joints
Articulations of costotransverse joint Transverse process w/ tubercle of rib
Articulations of costovertebral joint Body of vert. w/ head of rib
Articulations of costochondral joint anterior rib (1-10) w/ costal cartilage
Articulations of chondrosternal joint medial costal cartilage (1-7) w/ sternum
Articulations of interchondral joint medial costal cartilage (7-10) w/ costal cartilage (of other ribs)
UE - thorax muscles that assist with rib elevation (inspiration) Pec major, pec minor, and serratus anterior
Muscles of head/neck that assist with rib elevation (inspiration) ant/mid/post salenes, SCM
Muscles of the abdomen that assist with rib depression (expiration) Ex/int obliques, rectus abdominus
Contraction of the diaphram causes ____ inspiration
Relaxation of the diaphram causes ____ expiration (via elastic recoil)
External intercostals assist with... inspiration
Serratus posterior superior assists with... inspiration
Serratus posterior inferior assists with... expiration
Internal intercostals assist with... expiration
Intercostal nerves (ant. rami of spinal nerves) run along... the inferior border of ribs
The internal thoracic artery branches from... the subclavian artery
Posterior intercostals 3-11 branch from... the aorta
Posterior intercostals 1-2 branch from... subclavian artery
Subcostal artery runs inferior to __ and branches from ____ 12th rib, aorta
The right lung has __ lobes 3
The left lung has __ lobes 2
Bronchial arteries branch from aorta and bring O2 blood to lungs
Pulmonary veins return ___ blood to __ oxygenated blood to the L artium
Alveoli sacs of gas exchange (surrounded by capillary bed)
Pleura tissue to reduce friction of lungs on thoracic wall
Coronary sulcus / atrioventricular groove groove that separates atria from ventricles
What travels along the coronary sulcus? R/L coronary arteries
Superior vena cava receives blood from... head, neck, UE, upper thorax
Inferior vena cava receives blood from... lower thorax, and everything inferior to the diaphram
The coronary sinus brings deoxygenated blood from ___ to ____ from myocardium to the R atrium
Pulmonary circuit (pathway) blood of body -> R atrium -> tricuspid valve -> R vent -> pulmonary semilunar valve -> pulmonary artery -> lungs -> O2 blood -> pulmonary veins (4) -> L atrium
Systemic circuit (pathway) O2 blood -> L atrium -> bicuspid/mitral valve -> L vent -> aorta -> body
BP of systemic circuit vs pulmonary circuit systemic BP > pulmonary circuit
Angina pectoris temp. deficiency in b supply to myocardium (exercise/stress induced) -> chest pain
Myocardial infarction (MI) prolonged blockage of blood flow (ischemia) -> cardiac muscle cells die
Tricuspid valve lies b/w R atrium and R vent
Bicuspid/mitral valve lies b/w L atrium and L vent
Chordae tendinae CT attaching papillary muscles to cusps
Chordae tendinae prevent.. prolapse (of valves)
The atrioventricular valves are open during __ diastole
Diastole heart relaxes b/w beats, blood enters atria and ventricles, SL valves close from backflow (S2)
Systole heart contraction = atria contract -> vent contracts + AV valves close (S1) -> force blood into pulmonary artery + aorta
The pulmonary valves lies between... R vent and the pulmonary artery
The aortic valve lies between... L vent and the aorta
Fibrous pericardium prevents over-stretching of the heart
Heart depolarization (pathway) SA node -> AV node -> AV bundle -> R/L bundle branches -> purkinje fibers
Intrinsic rate of SA node, AV node, and Purkinje fibers SA: 75-100 bpm, AV: 50 bpm, Purkinje: 30 bpm
Pacemaker cells SA node, AV node, Purkinje fibers
P wave depolarization wave from SA to AV
P wave causes atrial contraction
QRS wave depolarization wave of ventricles
QRS wave causes ventricular contraction
T wave ventricular repolarization
S1 (heart sound) closure of AV valves (beginning of systole)
S2 (heart sound) closure of SL valves (beginning of diastole)
Stenotic murmur valve of decreased diameter -> turbulent flow
Regurgitation murmur valve does not close completely
Cardiac output (CO) volume of blood pumped (by each ventricle) per minute
CO = HR x SV (stroke volume)
Stroke volume (SV) volume of blood pumped per beat
Ventricle ejects about __% of blood it contains 60%
What increases SV? increase venous return, increased atrial pressure
Pectoralix major (N) Lat + med pec nerves
Serratus anterior (N) long throacic nerve
Scalenes (N) ventral nerves of C7-8, cervical spinal nerves C4-6
SCM (N) accessory nerve
Anterior abdominal muscles (N) lower six thoracic nerves
Pectoralis minor (N) medial pec nerve
Serratus posterior superior (N) 2-5 intercostal nerves
Serratus posterior inferior (N) 9-12 intercostal nerves
External intercostals (N) intercostal nerves
Internal intercostals (N) intercostal nerves
Conducting zone no gas exchange (trachea + bronchii)
Respiratory zone gas exchange (alveolus)
Surfactin keeps alveolus open
Function of thoracic wall protect + help breathing
Costal grooves hold... arteries, nerves, veins
1st rib is a __ rib atypical
Costal cartilage provides... elasticity
Thoracic and lumbar nerves are named for.. superior vertebrae
Bucket handle ribs during inspiration
Pump handle sternum during inspiration
"Lub" AV valves shut
"Dub" SL valves shut
Thoracic outlet syndrome compression of arteries/nerves in superior thoracic outlet
Herpes zoster (shingles) virus that resides in nerves -> radiating skin rash (often following intercostal nerves)
Pneumothorax collapsed lung due to fluid/air build up -> shortness of breath
Pleuritis Inflammation of pleura -> friction and pain during breathing
Atelectasis Collapsed lung (often post-surgery and due to a lack of surfactant)
Pulmonary embolism blood clot of pulmonary arteries
Bronchogenic carcinoma lung cancer
Cardiac tamponade pericardium fills w/ fluid -> pressure on heart
Septal defect hole b/w ventricles
Cerebrovascular accident stroke (blocked BVs in brain)
Angina chest pain due to a lack of blood flow to the heart
Myocardial infarction "heart attack" = death of heart muscle cells due to ischemia (lack of blood flow)
Coronary artery disease plaque build up in arteries of the heart
Aortic aneurysm enlargement of the aorta (can cause pain, may lead to hemorrhage)
Created by: cbaweiss