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FGCU Management 3

Human Resource Management Refers to the design and application of a formal sustems in an organization to ensure the effective and efficient use of human talent to accomplish organizational goals
Human Capital Refers to the economic value of the combined knowledge, experience, skills, and capabilities of employees
Equal Employment Opportunity Legislation Attempts to balance the pay given to men and women, provide employment opportunities without regard to race, religion, national origin, and gender; ensure fair treatment for employees of all ages; and avoid discrimination against disabled individuals
Discrimination Occurs when some applicants are hired or promoted based on criteria that are not job relevant
Affirmative Action Requires an employer to take positive steps to guarantee equal employment opportunities for people withing protected groups.
Affirmative Action Plan A formal document that can be reviewed by employees and enforcement agencies.
New Contract between Employer and Employee Based on the concept of employ-ability rather than lifetime employment
Employer of Choice A company that is highly attractive to potential employees because of human resources practices that focus on tangible and intangible benefits, and that embrace a long-term view to solving problems
Contingent Workers People who work for an organization, but not full time or on a permanent basis
Telecommuting Using computers and other equipment to do work without going to an office
Matching Model The organization and the individual attempt to match the needs, interests and values that they offer each other
Human Resource Planning The forecasting of human resource needs and the projected matching of individuals with expected vacancies
Recruiting Activities of practices that define the characteristics of applicants to whom selection procedures are ultimately applied
Internal Recruiting Less costly and generates higher employee commitment, development, and satisfaction because it offers opportunities for career advancement to employees rather than outsiders
External Recruiting Recruiting newcomers from outside the organization
Job Analysis A systematic process of gathering and interpreting information about the essential duties, tasks, and responsibilities of a job, as well as about the context within which the job is performed
Job Description A clear and concise summary of the specific tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job
Job Specification Outlines the knowledge, skills, education, physical abilities and other characteristics needed to adequately perform the job
Realistic Job Previews Gives applicants all pertinent and realistic information, positive and negative, about the job and the organization
E-cruiting Recruiting job applicants online
Application Form Used to collect information about the applicant's education, previous job experience, and other background characteristics
Interview Used as a selection technique in almost every job category in nearly every organization
Structured Interview Use a set of standardized questions that are asked of every applicant so comparisons ca easily be made
Situational Interview Require people to describe how they might handle a hypothetical situation
Behavioral Interview Ask people to describe how they have performed a certain task or handled a particular problem
Biographical Interview Ask about the person's previous life and work experiences
Non-directive Interview Allow the applicant a great deal of freedom in determining the course of the conversation
Panel Interview The candidate meets with several interviewers who take turns asking questions
Computer-based Interview Requires a candidate to answer a series of multiple choice questions tailored to the specific job.
Cognitive Ability Test Measure an applicant's thinking, reasoning, verbal, and matematical abilities
Physical Ability Test Measures qualities such as strength, energy and endurance
Personality Test Assesses characteristics such as openness to learning, agreeableness, responsibility, creativity, and emotional stability
Assessment Centers Present a series of managerial situations to groups of applicants over a two- or three- day period
In-basket Simulation Which requires the applicant to play the role of a manager who must decide how to respond to ten memos in his of her in-basket within a two hour period
Work Sample Test Require an applicant to complete simulated tasks that are part of the desired job
Training Refers to teaching people how to perform tasks related to their present jobs
Development Teaching people broader skills that are not only useful in their present jobs but also prepare them for greater responsibilities in future jobs
On-the-job Training An experienced employee is asked to take a new employee "under their wing" and show the newcomer how to perform job duties
Coaching A method of directing, instructing, and training a person with the goal to develop specific management skills
Performance Appraisal Comprises the steps of observing and assessing employee performance, recording the assessment, and providing feedback to the employee
Mentoring An experienced employee guides and supports a newcomer or less-experienced employee
Cross Training Places an employee in a new position for a period of time, enabling this individual to develop new skills and giving the organization greater flexibility
Corporate University An in-house training and education facility that offers broad-based learning opportunities for employees throughout their careers
Coaching An method of directing, instructing, and training a person with the goal to develop specific management skills
360-degree Feedback A process that uses multiple raters, including self-rating, as a way to increase awareness of strengths and weaknesses and guide employee development
Stereotyping Occurs when a rater places an emplouee into a class or category based on one of a few traits
Halo Effect A manager gives an employee the same rating on all dimensions even if his of her performance is good on some dimensions and poor on others
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) Developed from critical factors pertaining to job performance each anchored with specific behavioral statements that describe varying degrees of performance
Compensation All monetary payments, or goods and commodities used in lieu of payments
Skill-based Pay Systems Employees with higher skill levels receive higher pay than those with lower skill levels
Competency-based Pay Systems Encourage people to develop their skills
Job Evaluation Refers to the process of determining the value or worth of jobs within an organization
Wage and Salary Surveys Show what other organizations pay incumbents in jobs that match a sample of "key" jobs selected by the organization
Pay for Performance Tying a least part of compensation to employee effort and performance
Cafeteria Plan Benefits Packages Allow employees to select the benefits of greatest value to them
Rightsizing Refers to intentionally reducing the company's work force to the point where the number of employees is deemed to be right for the company's current situation
Exit Interview Conducted with departing employees to determine why they are leaving
Motivation Refers to the forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistance to pursue a certain course of action
Intrinsic Rewards The satisfaction a person receives in the process of performing a particular action
Extrinsic Rewards Given by another person, typically a manager and include promotions, pay increases, and bonuses
Content Theories Emphasize the needs that motivate people. These needs translate into an internal drive that motivates specific behaviors in an attempt to fulfill the needs
ERG Theory Three categories of needs: existence, relatedness and growth
Frustration-regression Principle The failure to meet a high-order need may rigger a regression to an already fulfilled lower-order need
Two-factor Theory Created by Frederick Herzberg. Hygiene and motivator factors
Hygiene Factors Focuses on lower-level needs and involves the presence or absence of job dissatisfiers, including working conditions, pay and company policies
Motivators Influence job satisfaction based on fulfilling higher level needs such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, and opportunities for personal growth
Aquired Needs Theory Proposes that certain types of needs, including the need for achievement, need for affiliation, and need for power, are acquired during an individual's lifetime of experiences
Process Theories Explain how people select behavioral actions to meet their needs and determine whether their choices were successful
Goal Setting Theory Proposes that managers can increase motivation and enhance performance by setting specific, challenging goals, hen helping people track their progress toward that goal achievement by providing timely feedback
Goal Specificity Refers to the degree to which goals are concrete and unambiguous
Goal Difficulty Hard goals are more motivating than easy ones, easy goals provide little challenge for employees and don't require them to increase their output
Goal Acceptance Means that employees have to "buy into" the goals and be committed to them
Co-management Initiative that managers and lower-level employees working together to set budgets, determine goals, and make decisions
Feedback Means that people get information about how well they are doing in progressing toward goal achievement
Equity Theory Focuses on individuals' perceptions of how fairly they are treated compared with others
Inputs Include education, experience, effort, and ability
Outcomes Include pay, recognition, benefits, and promotions
Equity Exists whenever the ratio of one person's outcomes to inputs equals the ratio of another's outcomes to inputs.
Expectancy Theory Suggests that motivation depends on individuals' expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards
E-->P Expectancy The expectancy that putting effort into a given task will lead to high performance
P-->O Expectancy The expectancy that high performance of a task will lead to the desired outcome
Valence The value of outcomes (rewards) to the individual
Reinforcement Theory Simply looks at the relationship between behavior and its consequences, focuses on changing or modifying employees' on-the-job behavior through the appropriate use of immediate rewards and punishments
Behavior Modification The name given to the set of techniques by which reinforcement theory is used to modify human behavior
Law of Effect States that behavior that is positively reinforced tends to be repeated, and behavior that is not reinforced tends not to be repeated
Reinforcement Defined as anything that causes a certain behavior to be repeated or inhibited
Positive Reinforcement The administration of a pleasant and rewarding consequences following a desired behavior
Avoidance Learning The removal of an unpleasant consequences once a behavior is improved, thereby encouraging and strengthening the desired behavior also known as negative reinforcement
Punishment The imposition of unpleasant outcome on an employee, occurs after undesirable behavior
Extinction Refers to withholding ositive rewards and essentially ignoring undesirable behavior
Social Learning Theory Proposes that an individual's motivation can result not just from direct experience of rewards and punishments but also from the person's thoughts and beliefs and his or her observations of other people's behavior
Vicarious LEarning Occurs when an individual sees others perform certain behaviors and get rewarded for hem
Self-reinforcement Refers to an individuls motivating him or herself by setting goals and ways of reaching them and then providing positive reinforcement to themselves when goals are acheived
Self-efficacy An individual's belief about his or her ability to successfully accomplish a specific task or outcome
Job Design The application of motivational theories to the structure of work for imroving productivity and satisfaction
Job Enrichment Means incorporating high-level motivatiors into the work, including responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for growth, learning and achievement
Job Rotation Sustematically rotate employees from one job to another to provide variety and stimulation
Job Enlargement Combining series of small tasks into one new, broader job so that people perform a variety of activities
Work Redesign Means altering jobs to increases both the quality of employees' work experience and their productivity
Job Characteristics Model Considers core job dimensions, individuals' critical psychological states and employee growth-need strengths
Empowerment The delegation of power and authority to subordinates
Engagement The emotional an mental state in which employees enjoy their work, contribute enthusiastically to meeting goals, and feel a sense of belonging and commitment to the organization
Strategic Conversation Refers to people talking across boundaries and hierarchical levels about the team or organization's vision, critical strategic themes, and the values that help achieve important goals
Communication The process by which information is exchanged and understood by two or more people, usually with the intent of motivating or influencing behavior
Channel The communication carrier, can be a formal report, a telephone call, or an e-mail
Feedback Occurs when the receiver responds to the sender's communication with a return message
Channel Richness The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode
Communication Apprehension Describes this avoidance behavior and is defined as "an individual's level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication."
Non-verbal Communication Refers to messages sent through human actions and behaviors rather than through words
Listening Involves the skill of grasping both facts and feelings to interpret a message's genuine meaning.
Formal Communication Channels Those that flow within the chain of command or task responsibility defined by the organization.
Downward Communication Refers to the messages and information sent from top management to subordinates in a downward direction
Upward Communication Includes messages that flow from the lower to the higher levels in the organization's hierarchy.
Horizontal Communication The lateral or diagonal exchange of messages among peers or coworkers.
Centralized Network Team members must communicate through one individual to solve problems or make decisions
Decentralized Network Individuals can communicate freely with other team members who must process information equally among themselves until all agree on a decision.
Personal Communication Channels Exist outside the formally authorized channels. These informal communications coexist with formal channels but may skip hierarchical levels, cutting across vertical chains of command to connect virtually to anyone in the organization.
Personal Networking Refers to the acquisition and cultivation of personal relationships that cross departmental, hierarchical and even organizational boundries
Grapevine An informal, person-to-person communication network that is not officially sanctioned by the organization
Created by: jklevin3085
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