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Rad Physics

Chapter 2 Radiation Concepts

Science use of knowledge in an organized and classified manner
Natural Science the study of the universe and its contents
Two categories of natural science physical and biological science
physical science the study of nonliving matter
biological science the study of living matter
Physics a branch of physical science that studies matter and enery and their interrelationships
Matter the substance that comprises all physical objects. It has shape and form and occupies space. Anything that has mass.
mass the quantity of matter contained in an object and is a principle characteristic of matter
weight the force that an object exerts under the influence of gravity
kilogram unit of mass
mixture of substances matter is most commonly found as this
substances a material that has a definite and constant composition
mixture two or more substances that have been combined
simple or complex substances may be one of what two things
simple substance is known as a element
complex substance is known as a compound
element a substance that cannot be broken down into any simpler substances by ordinary means
92 # of naturally occurring elements
atom the smallest particle of an element that still possesses the chemical properties of that element
molecule when two or more atoms are chemically united and is the smallest particle of a compund that still possesses the characteristics of the compound
energy the ability to do work
Law of Conservation of Energy the sum total of all matter and energy in the universe is a constant: matter and energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another
nucleus small dense center of the atom
nucleons protons and neutrons
protons and neutrons responsible for almost all the mass of an atom
electrons subatomic particle that cannot be divided into smaller parts
protons the key characteristic that distinguishes one element from another
atomic number the number of nuclear protons in an atom
Z number another name for the atomic number
atom becomes different element what happens when a atom loses or gains a proton
isotope if an atom loses or gains neutrons
ion if an atom loses or gains an electron
ionization the process of adding or removing an electron from an atom
electron binding energy that amount of energy needed to remove the electron from the atom
centrifiugal and attractive electrostatic force the stability of the electron orbit is contributed by these two opposing forces
electron volt (eV) the binding energy of an electron is measured in this unit
one shell number of K
two shell number of L
three shell number of M
four shell number of N
five shell number of O
six shell numper of P
seven shell Q
work the result of a force acting upon an object over a distance
mechanical energy the result of the action of machines or physical movement
potential and kinetic energy the two types of mechanical energy
potential energy the energy that an object has because of its position; stored by virtue of its position until it is converted to another form
kinetic energy the energy of motion
chemical energy form of energy released during a chemical reaction
thermal energy the result of motion of atoms and molecules
temperature a measure of thermal energy
electrical energy the result of movement of electrons
nuclear energy stored in the nucleus of each atom and holds the nuclear particles in a tight bond
electromagnetic energy a form of energy that is the result of electric and magnetic disturbances in space. travels through space as a combination of electric and magnetic fields and is produced by the acceleration of a charge
speed of light (c) the velocity of electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum
wave-particle duality of radiation EM radiation behaves as a particle or a wave depending on the circumstance
wavelength the distance between two successive crests or troughs
lambda character for wavelength
0.1 - 0.5 angstroms the wavelength of diagnostic x-rays
amplitude the intensity of the wave defined by it maximal height
frequency the number of waves that passes a particular point in a given time frame, or the number of cycles per seconds
nu (v) the greek letter that represents frequency
inversely proportional the relationship between wavelength and frequency
waves electromagnetic energy travels through space in the form of this
particles when electromagnetic radiation interacts with matter in what form
photon or quantum small bundle of energy
directly proportional the relationship between the photon energy and frequency
Created by: quietone055
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