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RT 230 Ch 3,4

Pathology for RTs

Mediastinal emphysema occurs when there has been a disruption in the esophagus or airway and air is trapped in the mediastinum.
Subcutaneous emphysema when the pneumomediastinum is extensive, air may pass from the mediastinum into the subcutaneous tissues of the chest or neck.
Respiratory failure used to describe lack of respiratory function or the lack of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange.
Cystic Fibrosis a generalized disorder resulting from a genetic defect transmitted as an autosomal recessive gene that affects the function of exocrine glands.(additive pathology)
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)(hyaline membrane disease) is a disorder of prematurity or infants born at less than a 37 week gestation, a deficiency of surfactants cause unstable alveoli and alveoli collapse. (additive pathology)
Pneumonia most frequent type of lung infection, resulting in an inflammation of the lung and compromised pulmonary function. (additive pathology)
Pneumococcal pneumonia most common bacterial pneumonia because this type of bacteria is often present in healthy throats.
Viral pneumonia can be caused by various viruses, most common influenza A and B. it is more common than bacterial pneumonia but less severe.
Pulmonary tuberculosis an infection caused by inhalation of mycobacterium tuberculosis, generally affects the lungs. (additive pathology)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to a group of disorders that cause chronic airway obstruction. (subtractive pathology)
Chronic bronchitis most often arises from long-term, heavy cigarette smoking or prolonged exposure to high levels of industrial air pollution, which irritates the mucous lining of the bronchial tree and increases susceptibility to both bacterial and viral infections.
Emphysema a condition in which the lungs alveoli become distended, usually from loss of elasticity or interference with expiration, characterized by an increase in the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles, with destruction of the alveolar walls.
Pleurisy Inflammation of the pleura, often used to indicate inconsequential thoracic pain. (no technique change)
Pleural effusion results when excess fluid collects in the pleural cavity (additive pathology)
Hemothorax a pleural effusion containing blood
Sinusitis infection and inflammation to the paranasal sinuses (additive pathology)
Coin lesion second most common radiographic presentation of a neoplasm consists of a solitary radiopaque lung nodule
What is the proper placement of ET tubes? 5cm above carina
If ET tube is place to far what side will it go to? the right side
What position is commonly used to see TB Lordotic
Infants normal thymus presents as a? "sail sign"
What is the imaging of choice in pulmonary adenopathy? CT
How big are nodules that are usually benign? less than 1cm
How big are nodules that are usually malignant? larger than 1cm
Perfusion (nuclear medicine) injected radionuclide is trapped in the pulmonary circulation
Ventilation (nuclear medicine) pt inhales a radioactive gas and holds their breath while an image is taken of the gas distribution in the lung
Dysphasia difficult swallowing
Colostomy a procedure in which a stoma is surgically created to the abdominal wall to allow drainage of bowel contents into a closed pouch outside the body
Ileostomy a similar opening like colostomy that is placed from the ileum, with the most common indication being ulcerative colitis
Endoscopy is the use of tubular fiberoptic devices to look inside the GI tract and other hollow organs or cavities of the body
Atresia a congenital absence or closure of a normal body orifice or tubular organ.
Imperforate anus a congenital disorder in which there is no anal opening to the exterior
Malrotation exists when the intestines are not in their normal position
Situs inversus complete reversal of all abdominal organs
Hirschsprung's disease is an absence of neurons in the bowel wall which prevents the normal relaxation of the colon and subsequent peristalsis, typically in the sigmoid colon, AKA: congenital megacolon.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) results from an incompetent cardiac sphincter allowing the backward flow of gastric acid and contents into the esophagus
Reflux esophagitis is the primary cause of esophageal inflammation
Peptic ulcer is an erosion of the mucous membrane of the lower end of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum
Gastroenteritis inflammation of the mucosal lining of the stomach and small bowel
Crohn's disease (regional enteritis) or (granulomatous colitis) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause, results in crypt cell inflammation, abscesses, small ulcers
Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform appendix resulting from an obstruction caused usually by a fecalith or rarely by a neoplasm
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory lesion of the colon mucose, thought to be autoimmune
Esophageal varices varicose veins in the esophagus, occur because portal hypertension
Hernia is a protrusion of a loop of bowel through a small opening, usually in the abdominal wall
Hiatal hernia is a weakness of the esophageal hiatus that permits some portions of the stomach to herniate into the thoracic cavity
Mechanical bowel obstruction bowel obstruction that occurs from a blockage of the bowel lumen
Volvulus is a twisting of a bowel loop about its mesenteric base, usually at either the sigmoid or the ileocecal junction
Intussusception occurs when a segment of bowel, constricted by peristalsis, telescopes into a distal segment and is driven further into the distal bowel by peristalsis
Achalasia is a neuromuscular abnormality of the esophagus that results in failure of the lower esophageal sphincter of the distal esophagus to relax, leading to dysphagia (additive pathology if food is present)
Diverticulum is a pouch or sac of variable size that occurs normally or is created by herniation of a mucous membrane thru defect in its muscular coat
Diverticulosis is the presence of diverticula without inflammation
Diverticulitis inflammation of diverticulum
Adenocarcinoma carcinoma derived from glandular tissue, occur at gastroesophageal junction.
Enteroclysis small bowel enema
Esophageal atresia is classified as what type of condition of the GI system? congenital
The radiographic string sign is associated with what disease? regional enteritis
Celiac disease is a type of what? malabsorption syndrome
The appearance of a Schatzki's ring is associated with what type of hernia? sliding
Where to the fewest GI tumors occur? small bowel
Gallstone ileus is the condition in which a gallstone erodes from the gallbladder and creates a fistula to the small bowel
Posterior mediastinal masses most commonly originate from what type of tissue? nervous
Empyema an accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
Lung abscess necrotic lung tissue surrounded by inflammatory debris
Bronchogenic carcinoma most common fatal primary malignancy in the US, tumor in major bronchi near the hilar area
Pulmonary metastases are much more common than what? primary lung neoplasms
With regards to the GI system, what does negative contrast (air) show better? intestinal lining
Cricopharyngeal spasms lump in throat
How would you diminish peristalsis? glucaten
How would you promote coating of the stomach mucosa? crystals
Where does an ileostomy open into? ileum
What is the most common NG tube? levin
What is Esophageal atresia and how is it fixed? It is when the esophagus fails to develop past a certain point and is fixed by surgery
Bowel atresia when the bowel fails to develop past a certain point
Describe the abdomen when a pt has bowel atresia. abdomen distened and the appearance of a double bubble sign
How is imperforate anus treated? surgery
Hypertrophic Pyloric stenosis congenital anomaly of the stomach where the pyloric canal leading out of the stomach is greatly narrowed because of hypertrophy of the pyloric sphincter, causes projectile vomiting
Esophageal strictures results from ingestion of strong acids or alkalines or from any factor that inflames/scars the mucosa
Created by: Chrslarsen