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Med. Term. Ch. 8

Urinary System

TermDefinition
cystoscopy visual examination of the urinary bladder and urethra using a cystoscope (thing, tubelike instrument with a light and lens for viewing) inserted through the urethra. examine urinary bladder, tumor biopsies, remove polyps
dialysis mechanical filtering process used to remove metabolic waste products from blood, draw off excess fluids, and regulate body chemistry when kidneys fail to function properly
electrolytes solutions that conducts electricity, such as acids, bases, and salts (sodium, potassium)
metabolism sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place within an organism
pH symbol for the measure of hydrogen ion concentration in a solution or the acidity or alkalinity of a substance
transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) surgical procedure that removes part of an enlarged prostate via an instrument inserted through the urethra
cyst/o bladder
vesic/o bladder
glomerul/o glomerulus
meat/o opening, meatus
nephr/o kidney
ren/o kidney
pyel/o renal pelvis
ur/o urine, urinary tract
urin/o urine, urinary tract
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
-emia blood condition
-iasis abnormal condition (produced by something specific)
-lysis separation, destruction, loosening
-pathy disease
-pexy fixation (of an organ)
-ptosis prolapse, downward, displacement
-tripsy crushing
-uria urine
an- without, not
poly- many, much
supra- above, excessive, superior
azoturia increase of nitrogenous substance, especially urea, in urine
diuresis increased formation and secretion of urine
dysuria painful or difficult urination, typically due to a urinary tract condition, such as cystitis
edema abnormal accumulation of fluids in the cells, tissues, or other parts of the body that may be a sign of kidney failure or other disease
end-stage renal disease kidney disease that has advanced to the point that the kidneys can no longer (chronic renal failure) adequately filter blood and eventually requires dialysis or renal transplantation for survival
enuresis (night-time bed-wetting, nocturnal enuresis) involuntary discharge of urine after the age at which bladder control should be established
hypospadias abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra on the under surface of the penis
interstitial nephritis pathological changes in renal interstitial tissue that result in destruction of nephrons and severe impairment in renal function
nephrolithiasis formation of stones (calculi) in the kidney that results when substances that are normally dissolved in the urine solidify (calcium and acid salts)
renal hypertension high blood pressure that results from kidney disease
uremia (azotemia) elevated level of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood
urinary tract infection (UTI) infection of the kidneys, ureters, or bladder by microorganisms that either ascend from the urethra or that spread to the kidney from the bloodstream
Wilms tumor malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in young children, usually before age 5, includes signs like hypertension, a palpable mass, pain, and hematuria
blood urea nitrogen (BUN) laboratory test that measures the amount of urea (nitrogenous waste product) in the blood and demonstrates the kidneys' ability to filter urea from the blood for excretion in urine
urea nitrogenous waste products
kidney, ureter, bladder (KUB) radiographic examination to determine the location, size, shape, and possible malformation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder
pyelography radiographic study of the kidney, ureters, and usually the bladder after injection of a contrast agent
intravenous pyelography (IVP) (intravenous urography, excretory urography) radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is injected intravenously and serial x-ray films are taken to provide visualization of the entire urinary tract
retrograde pyelography (RP) radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is introduced through a cystoscope directly into the bladder and ureters to provide detailed visualization of the urinary structures and also to locate urinary tract obstruction
renal scan nuclear medicine imaging procedure that determines renal function and shape through measurement of a radioactive substance injected intravenously that concentrates in the kidney
urinalysis (UA) physical, chemical, and microscopic analysis of urine
voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) radiography of the bladder and urethra during the process of voiding urine after filling the bladder with a contrast medium
catheterization insertion of a catheter (hollow flexible tube) into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or remove fluid, most commonly through the urethra into the bladder to withdraw urine
lithotripsy method of removing stones that crushes them into smaller pieces so they can be expelled in the urine
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy use of powerful sound wave vibrations to break up stones in the kidney
nephrolithotomy surgical procedure that involves a small incision in the skin and insertion of an endoscope into the kidney to remove a renal calculus
renal transplantation (kidney transplantation) organ transplant of a kidney in a patient with end-stage renal disease
antibiotics treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract by action on the bacterial membrane or one of its metabolic processes
antispasmodics decrease spasms in the urethra and bladder (caused by UTIs and catheterization) by relaxing the smooth muscles lining their walls, allowing normal emptying of the bladder
diuretics block reabsorption of sodium by the kidneys, thereby increasing the amount of salt and water excreted in the urine (causes reduction of fluid retained in the body and prevents edema)
urinary system remove wastes products from metabolism is the primary function
nephrology do diagnosis and treatment in kidney disease, kidney transplamtation, and dialysis therapies
urology study of urinary system
hydronephrosis excessive accumulation of urine in renal pelvis due to obstruction of a ureter
prostatomegaly caused by tumor growth, thickening of the bladder wall
hemodialysis passing blood through artificial knindey for filtering out impurities
peritoneal dialysis introducing fluid into the abdomen through catheter
urology associated with urinary system
nephrologists specialize in managing kidney disease, kidney transplantation and dialysis therapies. nephrology is internal medicine
urinary system remove waste products from metabolism from blood by excreting them in urine. maintain balance in electrolytes and an acid base balance (pH) in blood
hydronephrosis page 199 excessive acculumation of urine in the renal pelvis due to obstruction of an ureter
refluxes when urine flows backward because it is blocked from flowing into the bladder. results in abnormal dilation of renal pelvis and calyces of one or both kidneys. due to stone (stricture) or tumor growth due to thickening of bladder wall and prostatomegaly
stone calculus
hydroureter urinary obstruction in the proximal part of the ureter due to a stone
hydronephrosis englarged right kidney due to pressure from urine reflux, causes renal dysfunction
dialysis page 200 process of removing waste products from blood when kidneys are unable to do so
hemodialysis involves passing blood through an artificial kidney for filtering out impurities
peritoneal dialysis involves introducing fluid into the abdomen through a catheter.
Created by: 697149295