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Section 2

Research and Critical Thinking

Theory General idea or explanation of why things are the way they are or how things work
Hypothesis specific prediction, based on a theory, in a form that can be tested
Correlational Study preliminary type study where one simply looks at two factors to see if there might be a relationship between them. May establish that there appears to be some kind of association between the two factors but does NOT determine "cause and effect"
Positive Correlation approaching +1.0- as one goes up, the other goes up, and as one goes down, the other goes down
Negative correlation approaching -1.0- as one goes up, the other goes down, and as one goes down, the other goes up
Independent Variable factor controlled and manipulated by the experimenter
Dependent Variable factor assumed to be influenced (outcome measure)
Reliability extent to which an outcome measure tends to produce consistent readings under ordinary circumstances involving no independent variable manipulation- also,extent to which an outcome measure tends to produce consistent readings no matter who is conducting
Validity extent to which an outcome measure actually measures what it is supposed to measure
Experimental Group subjects receiving treatment in an experimental study
Control Group subjects receiving no treatment in an experimental study
Random Assignment unbiased division of subjects to create equal groups
Representative Sample subjects should be a reasonably accurate reflection of the larger population to which the study's conclusions would apply
Statistical Significance extent to which the results of an experimental study are not likely to be caused simply by chance (small differences between small groups mean nothing).
Meta-Analysis process of reviewing and analyzing results of several studies on the same topic performed by different researchers (one study never proves anything)
Created by: pinoybidd3
Popular Psychology sets




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