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Med. Term. Ch.7

Digestive System

TermDefinition
biopsy removal of a small portion of tissue from the body for microscopic examination
endoscopic examination procedure using an endoscope to diagnose or treat a condition, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract
dent/o teeth
odont/o teeth
gingiv/o gums
gloss/o tongue
lingu/o tongue
or/o mouth
stomat/o mouth
ptyal/o saliva
sial/o saliva, salivary gland
esophag/o esophagus
gastr/o stomach
pharyng/o pharynx (throat)
pylor/o pylorus (sphincter in lower portion of the stomach that opens into the duodenum)
duoden/o duodenum (first part of small intestine)
enter/o intestine (usually small intestine)
jejun/o jejunum (second part of small intestine)
ile/o ileum (third part of small intestine)
an/o anus
append/o appendix
appendic/o appendix
col/o colon
colon/o colon
proct/o anus, rectum
rect/o rectum
signoid/o sigmoid colon
chloangi/o bile vessel
chol/e bile, gall
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o bile duct
hepat/o liver
pancreat/o pancreas
-algia pain
-dynia pain
-emesis vomiting
-iasis abnormal condition (produced by something specified)
-megaly enlargement
-orexia appetite
-osis abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells
-pepsia digestion
-phagia swallowing, eating
-prandial meal
-rrhea discharge, flow
endo- in, within
hemat- blood
hypo- under, below, deficient
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix typically an acute condition caused by blockage of the appendix followed by infection that is treated with surgical removal of the inflamed infection appendix and antibiotic therapy
ascites pathological build up of fluid in the abdominal (peritoneal) cavity due to liver disease, cancer, heart failure, or kidney failure
borborygmus gurgling or rumbling sound heard over the large intestine that is caused by gas moving through intestines
cirrhosis chronic liver disease characterized by destruction of liver cells that eventually leads to ineffective liver function and jaundice
diverticular disease formation of bulging pouches (diverticula) throughout the colon, but most commonly in the lower portion of the colon (includes diverticulosis, diverticular bleeding, and diverticulitis)
dysentery inflammation of the intestine, especially of the colon, caused by chemical irritants, bacteria, or parasites and characterized by diarrhea, colitis, and abdominal cramps
fistula abnormal tunnel connecting two body cavities such as the rectum and the vagina (rectovaginal fistula) or a body cavity to the skin (such as the rectum to the outside of the body) caused by an injury, infection, or inflammation
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) backflow (reflux) of gastric contents into the esophagus due to malfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
hematochezia passage of bright red, bloody stools (usually an indiciation that the colon is bleeding somewhere) commonly caused by diverticulitis or hemorrhoids but may be a symptom of CA
hemorrhoid also called piles. mass of enlarged, twisted varicose veins in the mucous membrane inside (internal) or just outside (external) the rectum.
hernia protrusion or projection of an organ or a part of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it
strangulated hernia in which the protruding viscus is so tightly trapped that it leads to necrosis with gangrene results, requiring immediate surgery
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) disorder that causes inflammation of the intestines
Crohn disease chronic IBD that may affect any portion of the intestinal tract (usually the ileum) and is distinguished from closely related bowel disorders by its inflammatory pattern, which tends to be patchy or segmented; also called regional colitis
ulcerative colitis chronic IBD of the colon characterized by ulcers, constant diarrhea mixed with blood and pain
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) common colon disorder characterized by spastic colon. constipation, diarrhea, gas, and bloating that does not cause permanent damage to the colon
jaundice hyperbilirubinemia. yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of the eyes caused by excessive level of bilirubin in the blood
obesity condition in which body weight exceeds the range of normal or healthy which is characterized as a body mass index (BMI) greater than 25
morbid obesity more severe obesity in which a person has a body mass index of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 pounds lbs or more over the ideal body weight
ulcer open sore throat that may result from a perforation or lesion of the skin or mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing of inflamed necrotic (pathological death of a cell) tissue
volvulus twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction
barium enema (BE) radiographic examination of the rectum and colon after administration of barium sulfate (radiopaque contrast medium) into the rectum. BE is used for diagnosis of obstructions, tumors, or other abnormalities, such as ulcerative colitis
barium swallow radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine after oral administration of the barium sulfate (radiopaque contrast medium) and upper GI series
cholangiography radiographic examination of the bile ducts with a contract medium to reveal gallstones or other obstruction in the bile ducts
esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) upper GI endoscopy. visual examination of the esophagus (esophagoscopy), stomach (gastroscopy), and duodenum (duodenoscopy) using an endoscope
stool guaiac hemoccult test. test performed on feces using the reagent gum guaiac to detect presence of blood in feces that is not apparent on visual inspection
bariatric surgery any of a group of procedure used to treat morbid obesity
vertical banded angioplasty bariatric surgery in which the upper stomach near the esophagus is stapled vertically to reduce it to a small pouch and a band is inserted that restricts and delays and food from leaving the puch, causing a feeling of fullness
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RGB) bariatric surgery when stomach is stapled to decr to small pouch&jejunum is shortened and connected to small stomach pouch, causing duodenum base leading from the nonfunctioning stomach portion, forms Y configuration,decr food pathway,reduc cal absorption
colostomy excision of a diseased part of the colon and relocation of the remaining end of the healthy colon through the abdominal wall to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag
lithotripsy eliminating a stone within the gallbladder or urinary system by crushing it surgically or using a noninvasive method, such as ultra sonic shock waves to shatter it
extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy use of shock waves as a noninvasive method to destroy stones in the gallbladder and biliary ducts
nasogastic intubation insertion of a soft plastic nasogastic tube through the nostrils, past the past the pharynx, and down the esophagus into the stomach to remove substances from the stomach; deliver medication, food, or fluids; or obtain a specimen for laboratory analysis
polypectomy excision of a small, tumorlike, benign growths (polyps) that project from a mucous membrane surface
antacids neutralize acids in the stomach
antidiarrheals control loose stools and relieve diarrhea by absorbing excess water in the bowl or slowing peristalsis in the intestinal tract
antiemetics control nausea and vomiting by blocking nerve impulses to the vomiting center of the brain
laxatives relieve constipation and facilitate passage of feces through the lower GI tract
defecation body eliminates indigestible remains after this process of absorption
upper gastrointestinal tract mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach
lower gastrointestinal tract large and small intestines, rectum, and anus
gastroenterology branch of medicine concerned with diseases of the digestive tract
polypectomy detection of polps in volon
choleliths gallstones
cholelithiasis calculi (gallstones) form in gallbladder
laparoscopic cholecystectomy treatment for gallstone
gastroenterology branch of medicine concerned with disease of digestive tract. do liver biopsies, endoscopic examinations
digestion. alimentary canal, GI tract foods are broken down physically and chemically into nutrients so that they can be absorbed by cell membrane
digestion tube. upper gastrointestinal tract mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach,
lower gastrointestinal tract
defecation body eliminates indigestible remains after absorption process
endoscopy page 172
gallstones. page 173 gallbladder is usually where gallstones or choleliths, or calculi (cholelithiasis) form. causes are not understood. treatment: laparoscopic cholecystectomy
choledocholithiasis calculi are present in the bile duct
Created by: 697149295