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Psychology

TermDefinition
Consciousness Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Circadian Rhythems Internal biological clock
Maturation Biological growth processes leading to orderly changes to behavior; EXAMPLE: Newborn-Toddler-Teenager
Heredity Genes are passed from parents to offspring
Teratogen Any agent that can reach the developing infant during prenatal development and cause harm
Temperament A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
Schema Concepts or frameworks for organizing information
Sensation Process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system take in stimuli from the environment
Perception The process by which our brain organizes and interprets that information as meaningful objects and events
Transduction The process of converting one form of energy into another
Learning Relatively permanent behavior change as a result of experience
Conditioning Learn to associate two stimuli; the unconditioned response to one stimulus becomes the conditioned response to the other
Shaping Gradually guiding actions closer and closer towards a desired behavior, using reinforcement
Extinction The weakening of the conditioned response
Spontaneous Recovery the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response (CR)
Generalization Organism may respond similarly to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus (CS)
Discrimination Organisms distinguish between a CS and other stimuli
Narcolepsy Uncontrollable sleep attacks, sometimes lapsing directly into REM sleep
Sleep Walking Harmless; genetic basis
Night Terrors Not nightmares; tense, agitated, occurs in Stage 4; Child's heart and breathing rates may double
Dream Theories Wish-fullfillment, information processing, physiological function, activation-synthesis, cognitive-development
Manifest vs. Latent Content Remembered story line of dream vs. underlying meaning
Key Domains of Study in Developmental Psychology How we change physically, cognitively, and socially
Key Issues In Developmental Psychology Nature vs. nurture; continuity; stability and change
Interaction of Nature vs. Nurture Genes and environment interact; human differences are shaped by environment
Process of Prenatal Develoment Zygote: Conception to 2 weeks Embryo: 2-8 weeks Feus: 9 weeks to birth
Zygote 1 cell divides into 100 cells in the first week; cells start to differentiate
Embryo Attaches to uterine wall; internal organs start to develop
Fetus Appearance of bone cells
Difference between fraternal and identical twins Fraternal: develop from separate fertilized eggs Identical: develop from single fertilized egg
Reflexes Present at Birth Responding to faces, crying for food, rooting, and sucking
Impact of enriched vs. impoverished environments
Critical Period Exposure to some certain stimuli or experience is required during this time for proper development
Different Forms of Attachment Strange situation, Secure attachment, insecure attachment, anxiety, or avoidance
Length and Timing of Adolescence Adolescence begins with puberty; 12-18 years
Stages of Moral Development by Kohlberg Preconventional Morality-before age 9 Conventional-early adolescence Postconventional-adolescence and beyond
Crystallized vs. Fluid Intelligence Ones accumulated knowledge vs. ability to reason speedily and abstractly
Three Steps to Sensory System Receive; Transform; Deliver
Concepts of Classical Conditioning Acquisition; Extinction; Spontaneous Recovery; Generalization; Discrimination
Concepts of Operant Conditioning Shaping behavior; Reinforcers; Punishment
Concepts of Observational Learning Organisms learn without direct experience
Schedule of Reinforcements Continuous Reinforcement-reinforcing desired response every time it occurs Partial Reinforcement- Only part tim
Sigmund Freud (The healthy adult is one who can love and work)
Jean Piaget Believed children's minds develop in stages. Partly involves building schemas
Harry Harlow Studied the origins of attachment. HIS EXPERIMENT: bred monkeys for study and isolated baby monkeys from their mother
Erik Erikson Believed that securley attached children approach life with a sense of basic trust
Lawrence Kohlberg Sought to describe development of moral reasoning. Believes there are levels of moral thinking
John B. Watson Did "Little Abner" experiment for classical conditioning
B.F. Skinner Experimented for operant conditioning. "Skinner box"-Animal presses button to release food or water for reward
Ivan Pavlov Did experiment with dog, where when conditioned the dog would salivate at the sound of a bell
Albert Bandura Bobo doll experiment-childrens actions directly imitate the adult's actions.
Created by: lindzx92