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RADT334 - X-Ray Tube

Radiographic Physics Review Covering X-ray Tube

What are the external components of the x-ray tube? Support system, protective housing, enclosure
What are the 3 type of support systems? Floor to ceiling, ceiling, c-arm
Which support system is most frequently used? Ceiling
What is the purpose of the protective housing? Controls leakage and scatter radiation, isolates the high voltages and provides a means to cool the tube
What are the two types of materials used for the enclosure? Glass or metal
Which type of material used for the enclosure causes a longer life for the x-ray tube? Metal
What are the internal components of the x-ray tube? Cathode and anode
What material is used most frequently in the filament? Thoriated tungsten
What is the benefit of using thoriated tungsten in the filament? Prolongs tube life and higher thermionic emission
What is the purpose of the small focal spot? Used when better spatial resolution is required (bone work)
What is the purpose of the large focal spot? When large body parts are imaged and when higher techniques are used that will generate heat
What is the space-charge effect? The cloud of electrons makes it hard for subsequent electrons to be emitted because of electrostatic repulsion
What are the two types of anodes? Stationary and rotating
When is a stationary anode used? Dental x-ray imaging systems, some portable imaging systems, and other special-purpose units in which high tube current and power are not required
When is a rotating anode used? General-purpose x-ray tubes (capable of producing high-intensity x-ray beams in a short time)
Why is tungsten the material of choice for the anode target? High atomic number, thermal conductivity, high melting point
What is the atomic number of tungsten? 74
What is the melting point of tungsten? 3400 degrees C
What is the line-focus principle? Angled target allows for larger area for heating while maintaining a small focal spot
What does the line-focus principle do to radiographic images? Improves spatial resolution and heat capacity
What is the anode heel effect? The intensity of the x-ray beam on the anode side is weaker because it has a longer path through the target
How should positioning change to accommodate the anode heel effect? The cathode should be over the thicker part of the anatomy to provide a more uniform exposure
What is the most frequent cause of tube failure? Vaporization of the filament causing tungsten to coat the enclosure (causes arcing)
How can the radiographer prevent anode cracking due to rapid increase in anode temperature? Warm the anode by low-technique operation if maximum techniques are required
How does bearing damage occur? Maintaining the anode at elevated temperatures for prolonged periods
What does a radiographic rating chart show? Conveys which radiographic techniques are safe and which are unsafe
What does an anode cooling chart show? The thermal capacity of an anode and its heat dissipation characteristics
Created by: marchuleta1